Abu al-Hasan al-Syadzilli - The World Sufi East and West

His name is Ali bin Abdillah bin Abd al-Jabbar, which if passed lineage will arrive at Hasan bin Ali bin Abe Tholib and his son Fatimah al-Zahra ', daughter of the Prophet sallallaahu alaihi wasallam.
Shaykh Abu al-Hasan was born in Morocco in 593 AH in the village near the city named Ghimaroh Sabtah (near the town of Thonjah now).
It was there, he was the first time meghafal Al-Qur `an and receive lessons ilmi-religious sciences, including studying fiqh madhhab Imam Malik. He managed to obtain knowledge that originates in Al-Qur `an and Sunnah as well as the knowledge that comes from a clear mind.

Thanks to the knowledge they had, many of the scholars' who studied him. Some of them want to test the ingenuity Shaikh Abu al-Hasan. After the dialogue held Ilmiyah they finally admitted that he has extensive knowledge, so as to drain his knowledge as if it is quite difficult. Indeed, before he underwent tariqah science, he has to equip himself with the knowledge that memadahi Shari'a.

The first story he wanted to find a way tariqah enter the country Tunis is when he intends to meet with the masyayekh. And among the sheikh who can make a steady heart is sheikh Abi Said al-Baji. Before the sheikh Abu al-Hasan's talk, he already knew the contents of his heart, finally Abu al-Hasan knew that he was a trustee. Later he studied and gain knowledge from it. From there start the sheikh Abu al-Hasan tariqah pursue science. to pursue this commitment, he came to many countries, both eastern countries and western countries in the region. During his life he has perform the pilgrimage several times and traveled the closer to Allah SWT.

Each of galloping pace, his heart was always asked, "In the place where I can find a sheikh (Murshid)?". It is true, a student in the step to get closer to God is like a ship that sailed the vast ocean. Does the ship can run well without a helmsman (Murshid). And this is experienced by sheikh Abu al-Hasan.

On the way he finally arrived in Iraq, the region Sufi people and pious people. In Iraq he met with the sheikh Abi Salih al-Fath al Wasithi, the sheikh of the most memorable in his heart in comparison with other sheikhs in Iraq. Sheikh Abu al Fath said to the sheikh abu al Hasan, "O Abu al-Hasan Qutub you are looking for carers here, when he was in the country? Returned, and you shall find it."

Eventually I returned to Morocco, and met with the sheik as Siddiq al-Qutb al ghauts Muhammad Abdus salam ibn Abi al Sharif al-Hasani Masyisy. Sheikh was staying at the top of the mountain, before him I clean my body (bath) in the onion volcano and I came to feel stupid and no good deeds. But before I go up the mountain turned out to sheikh Abdus salam has come down to see me.

When he saw me, he said, "Welcome, O 'Ali bin Abdullah bin Abdul-Jabbar". She tells me until the Messenger nasab sallallahu 'alaihi wasallam. Then he said, "You come to me to feel stupid and feel does not have good deeds, then you will get rich world and the hereafter.

Finally I was with him a few days until my heart get a divine glow. During the joint sheikh Abdus Salam, I saw some of its sacred.
The meeting between Sheikh Abdullah bin Abdul-Jabbar and Sheikh Abu al-Hasan is really a meeting between Murshid and students, or between muwarrits and waarits. Lots futuhat ilahiyyah obtained sheikh Abu al-Hasan from him.

Among testament sheikh Abdullah bin Abdul-Jabbar to him is, "Sharpen the vision of faith and ye shall find God in every thing".
While he called syadzili story is as follows.

"When I sit in front of the sheikh, in a small space, there are small children beside me. Inside my heart wanted to ask the sheikhs hint about God's name. However, the little children come to me and his hand holding the collar of my shirt and said," O, Abu al-Hasan, Sheikh you want to ask about the name of Allah when ye is the name you are looking for, meaning the name of God is already in your heart. Finally sheikh smiled and said, "He has answered your question."

Furthermore, Sheikh Abdullah bin Abdul-Jabbar Abu al-Hasan ordered to go to the area Afriqiyyah precisely in the area named Syadzilah, because God will call you by name Syadzili-though at that time was Abu al-Hasan not yet known by that name.

Before leaving Abu al-Hasan asked testament to the sheikh, then he said, "Remember God, clean the tongue and heart from all that pollutes the name of God, keep your body member of the immoral, do the obligatory charity, then you have obtained a degree guardian, Remember the duty to God, then you will obtain the degree of people who wara '. then pray to God with prayer, "cor arihnii min dzikrihim wa minal' awaaridhi min qibalihim wanajjinii aghninii bi wa min syarrihim khairika 'an khairihim wa bil tawallanii khushuushiyyati min bainihim innaka' alaa kulli syai'in qadiir ".

Finally, according to the instructions, sheikh Abu al-Hasan went to the area to find out the secrets that have been said to him. In rihlatun Nuur this time he gets a lot of trials as trials that have been experienced by the trustee-trustee selection. However, with these trials actually increased the level of faith and his heart more clearly.

After reaching the Syadzilah, namely the area near Tunis, he was with his friends and his students toward a cave in the mountain za'faran to Munajat and worship to Allah SWT. Since worship in that place one of his students know that the sheikh Abu al-Hasan much memili sacred and the level of worship has reached high levels.

At the end there munajatnya voice whisper that says, "O Abu al-Hasan came down and hang out with people then they will be able to take advantage of you, then I say," Oh Lord, why You commanded me to socialize with them, I can not afford "and then answered," Come on, come down inshaAllah you will be safe and you will not get the reproach of them "then I said," if I'm with them, whether I will eat from their dirhams? then answered, "Beramalallah, I am Oft-rich, both charity of something you have (minal jaib) or something that will I give unto you (minal supernatural). Through this divine dialogue he asked God, why she called and she was not originating syadzili from syadzilah, then God replied, "I do not mnyebutmu with syadzili and yet you are syadzdzuli, meaning that a total stranger to hidmah and love me.

After that sheikh Abu al-hasan go to Tunis and finally stayed in the mosque of al Bilath. In the vicinity of the place many of the scholars' and the Sufis. Among them was his friend who called al Jalil Sayyidi Abul Azaim, sheikh Abu al-Hasan and Abu Abdillah Shaqli ash ash Shabuni.

Eventually the popularity of sheikh Abu al-Hasan heard everywhere, until you hear the ear qadhi al jama'ah Abu al Qasim ibn Barra '. When he heard this news, jealousy and hasud appear in his heart. He tried to drop in popularity. He reported to the Sultan Abi Zakariya, with allegations that he comes from Fathimi class.

Then the sultan responded by holding meetings and collecting ash Shaykh Hasan and al-Qadi and presented fiqh experts. The meeting was to examine how the ability of sheikh abu al-Hasan.
Among the question is he asked about nasabnya several times and he can answer it properly. And many more questions. In essence Sheikh Abu al-Hasan are people who have a storehouse of knowledge, so that any questions he could answer properly.

Finally tersentaklah qadhi with answers which acknowledge that the sheikh sultan Abu al-Hasan is included leaders of the guardians.
Envy and jealousy qadhi against sheikh Abu al-hasan increasing rapidly, then he tried to persuade the sultan and said, "If the master let him, then the population of Tunis will drop you from the throne".

Perkatan hear this and because of concern personal affairs, told the sultan finally fiqh experts to come out of a meeting place and arrested sheikh Abu al-Hasan for imprisoned in the palace.

Hearing this one friend sheikh Abu al-Hasan visited him and said, "People talk about you that you have done this and that." Friend had to cry in front of sheikh Abu al-Hasan and with confidence and high stability sheikh smiled sweetly and said, "By Allah, if I do not use the adab Personality 'then I'm outta here-while mengisyarahkan with his finger. Each finger mengisyarahkan to the wall then the wall is directly split, then sheikh said to me, "Give me pot containing water, give a prayer rug and give my regards to my friends. Tell them that the only day we do not meet and pray maghrib when we shall meet again ".

Many sacred God-given to him. Each request was granted by Allah SWT.

In one moment the sultan were surprised by the news that the slave woman most loved and most proud of developing the disease died instantly. When they're busy washing it for later dishalati slaves, they forget embers are still burning in the building. At last embers of the fire had engulfed clothing, jewelry, property, carpets and other property that can not be counted value. At that time, the sultan remember that these events because he's attitudes toward sheikh Abu al-Hasan and he remembered that the man 'Aada lillahi waliyyan aadzanahullahu fa bil harbi .1)

And oddly enough, the brother of the sultan, including followers of sheikh Abu al-Hasan. Finally, he apologized to the sheikh of the treatment to him.
Similar stories experienced by Ibn al-Barra. When dying he also undergone many trials both property and religion.

After that, from Tunis sheikh Abu al-Hasan to the eastern state of Iskandariyyah. There she met with the sheikh Abi Abbas al-Mursi. The meeting of two sheikhs had really reflect between a Murshid and students.

The reasons why he moved to Egypt, he said, "I had a dream, that the Prophet sallallahu 'alaihi wasallam said," O Ali ... go to Egypt to train 40 people who really scared me.

Finally, he reached the city of Alexandria and married and endowed with five children, three boys and two girls. During his in Egypt is bringing many blessings, in the field of propaganda, and many of the scholars who took knowledge from him.

Including scholars who come to take from him is faidah Izzuddin bin Abdus Salam, Ibn al-Iid Daqiq, Al-hafidz al-Mundziri, Ibn al-Hajib, Ibn Sholah, Ibn Usfur, and others in the madrasa al-kamiliyyah that lies in the way of Al-muiz li dinillah.

Abu al-Hasan was the good looks, nice talking with, and knowledgeable in tasawwuf. He said "our way is not by the pendetaan, not by eating bits of flour, but the way we are with the patient on the orders, and believes in the guidance".

Shaykh Abu al-Abbas al-Mursy say that this teacher to go for Hajj every year, then lived in the holy city began the month of Rajab, until the pilgrimage out, then pilgrimage to the tomb of the Prophet sallallahu 'alaihi wasallam in Medina. At the last Hajj season of the year 656H, after returning from the hajj, he commanded his disciples to bring the ax perfume and body care device sharing. When students asked for what all of this, he replied, "In the Ravine Humaistara [in the provinces of Bahr al-Ahmar) there will be a definite event. Then that's where he died.
And Allaah knows best.

Ibn Ato’illah al-Sakandari - Pengarang kitab al-Hikam

Beliau adalah Tajuddin, Abu al-fadl, ahmad bin Muhammad bin abd al-karim bin ato’ al-sakandary al-judzamy al-maliky al-syadzily. Beliau berasal dari bangsa arab, nenek moyang beliau berasal dari judzam yaitu salah satu qobilah Kahlan yang berujung pada bani ya’rib bin qohton, yaitu bangsa Arab yg terkenal dengan Arab al-Aa’ribah.

Ibnu ato’ dilahirkan di kota Iskandariyyah, yaitu tempat di mana keluarganya tinggal dan kakeknya mengajar. Beliau dilahirkan antara tahun 658 sampai 679 H. Beliau belajar pada ulama’ tingkat tinggi di Iskandariyah seperti al-faqiih Nasiruddin al-Mimbar al-Judzaami. Kota Iskandariyah pada masa Ibnu Ato’ adalah salah satu kota ilmu di semenanjung Mesir, karena Iskandariyyah banyak dihiasi oleh banyak ulama’ dalam bidang fiqih, hadits, usul,dan ilmu-ilmu bahasa arab, tentu saja juga memuat banyak tokoh-tokoh tasawwuf dan para auliya’ Sholihin.

Ayah beliau adalah termasuk semasa dengan Syeh Abu al-Hasan al-Syadili -pendiri toriqoh al-Syadziliyyah-sebagaimana diceritakan Ibnu Ato’ dalam kitabnya Lathoiful Minan : saya diceritai oleh ayahku, suatu ketika aku sowan ke syeh Abu al-Hasan al-Syadzili lalu aku mendengar beliau mengatakan: "Demi Allah… kalian telah menanyai aku tentang suatu masalah yang tidak aku ketahui jawabannya, lalu aku temukan jawabannya tertulis pada pena tikar dan dinding”.

Keluarga Ibnu Ato’ adalah keluarga yang terdidik dalam lingkungan agama, kakek dari jalur nasab ayahnya adalah seorang yang alim fiqih pada masanya, oleh karena itu tidak mengherankan bila Ibnu Ato’illah tumbuh sebagai seorang faqih, sebagaimana harapan dari kakeknya.

Ibnu Ato’ menceritakan dalam kitabnya Lathoiful minan :bahwa kakeknya adalah seorang yang inkar pada tasawwuf, tapi mereka sabar akan serangan dari kakeknya, di sinilah guru ibn ato’ yaitu Abul Abbas al-Mursy mengatakan: "kalau anak dari alim fiqih iskandariyyah (Ibn ato’illah) datang ke sini, tolong beritahu aku", dan ketika aku datang, beliau mengatakan: "malaikat jibril telah datang kepada nabi bersama dengan malaikat penjaga gunung ketika orang quraisy tidak percaya pada nabi, lalu malaikat penjaga gunung menyalami nabi dan mengatakan:" wahai Muhammad.. kalau engkau mau maka aku akan timpakan dua gunung pada mereka". lalu nabi mengatakan :" tidak… aku mengharap akan keluar orang-orang yg bertauhid dan tidak musyrik dari mereka". Begitu juga kita sabar akan sikap kakek alim fiqih ini( kakek Ibn Ato’illah) demi orang yang alim fiqih ini.”.

Buku-buku biografi menyebutkan riwayat hidup Athoillah menjadi tiga masa.:
Yang pertama: yaitu ketika beliau tinggal di Iskandariyyah sebagai pencari ilmu agama seperti tafsir, hadits, fiqih, usul, nahwu dan lain-lain dari para alim ulama di Iskandariyyah. Pada periode itu beliau terpengaruh pemikiran-pemikiran kakeknya yang mengingkari para ahli tasawwuf karena kefanatikannya pada ilmu fiqih, dalam hal ini Ibn Ato’illah bercerita: "Dulu aku adalah termasuk orang yang mengingkari Abu al-Abbas al-Mursi, yaitu sebelum aku menjadi murid beliau" .saya mengatakan : "yang ada itu hanya ulama’ ahli dzohir, tapi mereka ( ahli tasawwuf) mengaku-aku adanya hal-hal yang besar, sementara dzohir syareat menentangnya”.

Masa yang kedua: dimulai semenjak bertemunya dengan gurunya Abu al-Abbas al-Mursi, tahun 674 H ,dan berakhir dengan pindahnya beliau ke Kairo.dalam masa ini hilanglah inkar beliau pada ahli tasawwuf. Ketika bertemu dengan al-Mursi ,beliau sangat kagum dengan gurunya dan akhirnya ia mengambil toriqoh dari gurunya. Sebab musabab perubahan ini adalah karena beliau merasa sangat tertekan jiwanya, beliau takut sikapnya ini (keingkarannya) pada gurunya adalah tidak benar. Dalam hal ini beliau mengatakan:” sebab saya bergaul erat dengan al-Mursi, adalah perenungan saya setelah terjadi perselisihan antara aku dan guruku:" biarlah aku pergi melihatnya, karena orang yang benar itu mempunyai pertanda yang jelas", lalu aku datang ke majlisnya, dan aku mendengar beliau ceramah tentang masalah-masalah yang diperintahkan syara’, maka tahulah aku bahwa guruku ini mengambil ilmunya langsung dari Tuhan, lalu Allah menghilanglah rasa bimbang yang ada dalam hatiku".

Perlu di terangkan di sini, pada mulanya Ibn Athoillah menyangka ia tidak bisa menempuh jalan tasawuf kecuali dengan total, konsentrasi pada ilmu tersebut dan hanya mengabdi pada guru. Dalam hal ini beliau bercerita : "aku menghadap guruku Al-Mursi, dan dalam hatiku ada keinginan meninggalkan ilmu dzohir, lalu beliau mengatakan padahal aku tidak mengutarakan sesuatu:" Di kota qous ada kawanku namanya Ibn Naasyi’, dulu dia adalah pengajar di qous dan sebagai wakil penguasa, dia mengecap sedikit dari toriqoh kita, dan dia mengatakan: "tuanku… apakah sebaiknya aku meninggalkan tugasku sekarang ini dan berkhidmah saja pada tuan?".lalu aku mengatakan padanya: "Tidak demikian tarekat kita, tapi tetaplah pada maqom yang sudah di tentukan Allah padamu, apa yang digariskan padamu dari tangan-tangan kita nanti akan sampai padamu juga".lalu beliau berkata: 'beginilah keadaan orang-orang al-Siddiqiyyin. Mereka sama sekali tidak keluar (dari suatu maqom-pen) sampai Allah sendiri yang mengeluarkan mereka".Maka keluarlah aku dari majlis Al-Mursi, dan Allah telah menghapus unek-unek dalam hatiku, sepertinya aku baru saja melepas pakainku, lalu aku rela dengan maqom yang di tempatkan oleh Allah"

. Masa yang ketiga dimulai semenjak pindahnya beliau dari Iskandariah ke Kairo, masa ini selesai dengan wafatnya beliau tahun 709 H. Masa ini adalah masa kematangan dan kesempurnaan Ibn Ato’illah dalam ilmu fiqih dan ilmu tasawwuf. Pada masa inilah beliau membedakan antara Uzlah dan kholwah. Uzlah menurut beliau adalah pemutusan (hubungan) maknawi bukan haqiqi dari makhluq, yaitu dengan cara si Salik (orang yang uzlah) selalu mengawasi dirinya dan menjaganya dari kesibukan dunia. Dan ketika seorang sufi sudah mantap dengan uzlahnya dan nyaman dengan kesendiriannya ia memasuki tahapan khalwah. Dan khalwah dipahami dengan suatu cara menuju rahasia Tuhan, kholwah adalah perendahan diri dihadapan Allah dan pemutisan hubungan dengan selain Allah Subhanahu Wata'ala. Menurut Ibn Ato’illah rumah yang bagus untuk berkholwah adalah yang tingginya sekadar tingginya manusia, panjangnya sekadar panjang sujudnya, lebarnya sekedar lebar duduknya, kamar itu tidak ada lubang untuk masuknya cahaya matahari ,jauh dari keramaian, pintunya rapat, dan ada dalam rumah yang banyak penghuninya..

Ibnu Ato’illah sepeninggal gurunya Abu al-Abbas al-Mursi tahum 686 H,menjadi penggantinya dalam mengembangkan toriqoh Syadziliyyah, tugas ini di samping tugas mengajar di kota Iskandariah.maka ketika pindah ke Kairo, beliau bertugas mengajar dan ceramah (mauidzoh) di jami’ al-Azhar. Ibnu Hajar berkata: “
"Ibnu Ato’illah berceramah di Azhar dengan tema yang menenangkan hati dan memadukan perkatan-perkatan orang kebanyakan dengan riwayat-riwayat dari salaf soleh, juga berbagai macan ilmu, maka banyaklah pengikutnya dan menjadi simbol kebaikan". Ibnu Tagri Baradi mengatakan: "Ibn Ato’illah adalah orang yang sholeh, berbicara d iatas kursi Azhar, dan dihadiri oleh hadirin yang banyak sekali ,ceramahnya sangat mengena dalam hati, dia mempunya pengetahuan yang dalam akan perkataan ahli hakekat dan orang orang ahli toriqoh". . Termasuk tempat mengajar beliau adalah madrasah al-Mansuriah di hay al-Shoghoh..beliau mempunyai banyak anak didik yang menjadi seorang ahli fiqih dan tasawwuf, seperti Imam Taqiyyuddin al-Subki, ayah Tajuddin al-Subki, pengarang kitab Tobaqoh al-syafi’iyyah al-Kubro.

Adapun tentang karomah beliau, al-Munawi dalam kitabnya Al-Kawakib al-durriyyah mengatakan: Syeh Kamal ibn Humam ketika ziaroh ke maqom beliau, membaca surat Hud sampai pada ayat yang artinya: "diantara mereka ada yang celaka dan bahagia", lalu Ibn Ato’illah dari quburnya menjawab dengan keras : "wahai Kamal… tidak ada diantara kita yang celaka". Oleh karena itu, Ibn Humam berwasiat kalau meninggal supaya dimakamkan dekat dengan Ibn Ato’ilah. Ada kejadian lain ,yaitu: salah satu murid beliau berangkat haji ,lalu dia melihat beliau sedang towaf, juga melihatnya di belakang maqom Ibrahim di Mas’aa dan Arafah, ketika pulang ,dia bertanya tentang Ibn Ato’illah "apakah beliau pergi haji?" Mereka menjawab "tidak".lalu dia sowan ke beliau ,lalu Ibn Ato’ menanyai:" siapa saja yang kamu temui ? "lalu dia jawab: "tuanku… aku di sana meliat tuan!". Lalu beliau tersenyum sambil berkata: "orang yang besar itu memenuhi dunia, kalau saja wali qutub itu di panggil dari liang tanah ,dia pasti menjawabnya.

Adapun karya beliau, beliau meninggalkan banyak karangan yang beraneka ragam, sebanyak lebih dari 22 kitab, ada tentang sastra, tentang tasawwuf yang menjelaskan hal yang paling lembut dari keadaan jiwa manusia ketika suluk, munajat pada Allah Subhanahu Wata'ala, ada yang tentang fiqh, nahwu mantiq dan falsafah, juga tentang berceramah di hadapan manusia(khitobah).
Beliau wafat tahun 709H di madrasah al-Mansuriyyah dimana beliau mengajar, jenazahnya diiring para pelayat dari Kairo dan sekitarnya untuk dimakamkan di pemakaman al-Qorrofah al-Kubro.

Sumber : Ziarah Makam Auliya, Diterbitkan Oleh: Jam’iyah Ahli Thariqat Al Mu'tabarah An Nahdliyyah PCI NU Mesir

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