The Art of Diplomatic Leadership

As leaders encounter entirely new kinds of challenges and responsibilities, they find that they have the strength and resources to meet these challenges. For example, some first-time leaders ultimately learn that they have a gift for leading and inspiring others. Others find that they're especially talented at gauging others' motivations and values. Each time you make something happen as a leader—whether it's shaping your group's culture in positive ways, helping someone master a new task, or assembling a top-notch team—leaders expand their abilities. They become more seasoned, experienced, and confident leaders, and have a sharper awareness of their own strengths and areas for improvement. Not only do they learn more about themselves as they progress in a leadership role; they also learn more about organizational life in general.

The command and control techniques of previous generations are increasingly ineffective. Today’s leaders must be forward thinking, possess moral courage, and skilled in the art of diplomacy. As a Trustee, I can recall several joint board meetings when the Pastor wasn’t present and it was difficult to keep everyone on task. I experienced similar instances onboard ship when the Commanding Officer and Executive Officer were ashore. The changing structure of organizations, the growth of alliances between organizations, and the changing nature of work itself calls for new approaches to leadership. Paul suggested a new approach in Galatians 5:22, “But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, longsuffering, gentleness, goodness, faith…” By faith, Paul refers to something more than the knowledge of the earthly life of Jesus. He means a commitment of an individual to the way of life Jesus exemplified. This approach has less to do with formal authority and the power to control, and more to do with using situational, strategic, and ethical leadership skills to keep groups of people who may not report to you aligned with an overarching purpose.

The most Important Ingredient: Ethics

Ethical Leadership includes a variety of elements. Beliefs regarding ethics involves taking into account the purpose of the action taken, the consequences to self and others, and the moral standard by which the action is measured. This doesn’t mean ignoring profit and loss, productions costs, and so forth but rather concern for the rational measures of performance coupled with the recognition of the importance of treating people right every day. “Moral leadership is about distinguishing right from wrong and doing right, seeking the just, the honest, the good, and the right conduct in its practice” (Daft, 1999, p. 369).

Whether it involves judgment based on character or legal infractions, ethics has always been a popular topic. When leaders wonder whether their conduct is ethical, they need to ask ‘What would I think if someone else did it?’ Paul believed that the law identifies the flaws in a person's character but it does not remove them. Paul writes, "…whosoever of you are justified by the law; ye are fallen from grace” (Galatians 5:4). Compassion is grounded in a larger understanding of our relationship to God and one another. When we define Christianity as a list of do’s and don'ts, we restrict ourselves from enjoying an intimate relationship with God. We get caught up in rules as if God were waiting to catch us out of line when He’s really waiting to pick us up when we fall. Christ does not make demands on us that limit our self-direction therefore we should not be inclined to judge others in that manner. In his Virtue-Centered Theory of Judging, Lawrence Solum argued “theories of fairness are prior to theories of justice (2003, p. 178). True Christianity sees the role of leadership as based on love and grace.

We have all known people whose character was not consistent with their personality. However, character is of higher importance than personality. Malphurs (2003) maintained “A Christian Leader emphasizes godly character” (p. 19). The organization will hold people accountable for their behavior (character) but not for their personality traits. If the ‘fruit’ of the spirit (love, joy, peace, etc) and ‘fruit’ of the flesh (adultery, hatred, envy, etc) are the outcomes, then our character is the means towards that outcome. We must seek to do the right thing.

Character is our commitment to doing the right thing, which is why we should focus on character development. In 1 Timothy 4:7 Paul urges Timothy “…exercise thyself rather unto godliness.” Character and self-discipline are a leader’s moral strength to behave according to proper values. The difficulty arises not in knowing what is right but rather doing what is right. Look for organizations where the leaders have clearly defined, articulate, and exemplify the organizational values. “Leadership is doing the right thing even when we do not feel like it, perhaps especially when we do not feel like it” (Hunter, 2004, p. 145).

There are numerous ways to assist emerging leaders in ethical development. I would start with leading by example. It’s difficult to appreciate the pressures on a leader unless you have had that position. The best way to assist up-and-coming leaders whether they’re your peers or subordinates is to let them see Christ working through you. “The movement away from command and control leadership has brought new leadership styles that are more democratic and coach-like” (Lassiter, 2001). Terms such as shared or servant leadership are increasingly used to describe some of these ways of interacting.

Another way to develop ethical behavior is to develop a personal creed – that which defines who you are, what your goals in life are, and how you intend to live your life. Kouzes and Posner (2002) observed “When you clarify the principles that will govern your life and the ends that you will seek, you give purpose to your daily decisions” (p. 394). An ethical leader has one personality. Whether at home or at work, there is only one set of principles that guides his behavior.

As an Engineering Training Team leader onboard a Guided Missile Frigate, I worked hard to build trust within the team. Everything was smooth until Petty Officer Johnson joined. Several members suggested that he lacked experience and he did not collaborate very well. The group went out for a "team" lunch, and left Johnson behind. I was shocked and disappointed. Johnson was extremely competent and showed passion for his work. I met individually with all team members, including Johnson, to allow them to communicate their concerns. I actively listened to what's being said. By better understanding the concerns of the group I was able get to the root causes of the problem. One method that helps make teams innovative is to “Make sure that the members of the group are communicating with one another.” (Biolos, 1996, p. 1).

The Most Important Lessons: Situations

“A Christian leader is a servant with the credibility and capabilities to influence people in a particular context to pursue their God-given direction” (Malphurs, 2003, 131). The same person can be a successful leader in one situation but fail in another. It is unlikely that there is a single set of abilities and characteristics that can be found in all leaders. It’s not that the characteristics are not important, but rather, the essential characteristics of the leader vary depending on the circumstances. The requirements to be a successful Naval Officer, for example, would differ from those of a Elementary School Principal or Sales Manager. McGregor (2006) suggested “…that it is more fruitful to consider leadership as a relationship between the leader and the situation than as a universal pattern of characteristics possessed by certain people” (p. 253).

The Situational Leadership Theory developed by Hersey and Blanchard focuses on the characteristics of followers as the important element of the situation, and consequently of determining effective leader behavior. Yukl (2002) observed “Major situational variables include the characteristics of followers, the nature of the work performed by the leader’s unit, the type of organizations, and the nature of the external environment” (p. 13). In other words, subordinates vary in readiness levels therefore leader behavior should be influenced by the factors that influence the entire situation.

Daft (1999) summarized the relationship between leader style and follower readiness into four categories: telling, selling, participatory, and delegating. Telling is very directive, selling involves explaining decisions, participatory is sharing ideas to facilitate decision making, and delegating is a style that affords very little direction and support. (p. 99 – 102). As leaders, our professional identity will transform in relation to the skills and abilities of the group as well as outside influences. This means that we look at the world from a different perspective.

As the Material and Logistics Officer for a Destroyer Squadron my areas of responsibility included two major departments on each of our six ships: Engineering and Supply. At the end of every month I experienced difficulty in getting summary reports from the Engineers but the Supply reports were always right on-time. However, when the ships were underway the Engineering departments functioned admirably while the Supply departments were somewhat shoddy. I had to adjust my style of leadership when dealing with the Department Heads as the situations changed. For the monthly summary reports I used delegation with the Supply Officers but a more directive approach with the Engineers but the reverse during the operational phases. From a naval perspective, the Engineers were very operationally and technically proficient while the Supply Officers were very business oriented.

When we become a manager, we enter the role with our own expectations of what our new job will involve. Often, those expectations differ from the job's real requirements. In addition, the various people with whom we'll work—our direct reports, supervisors, and peers—have their own expectations regarding our role—and some of their expectations may conflict with ours. Every situation we encounter will involve different skill sets. Each situation underscores the extent to which problem solving is central to the work of leadership. In the age of teams, leaders don’t solve problems alone. They must operate from a business discipline that will enable a group of workers to frame a problem and agree on the most efficient way to solve it. Yet as basic as this task is, many organizations don’t solve problems using processes that result in optimal solutions.

An effective team is diverse with differing skills that trust each other enough to challenge one another’s work. Members don’t always agree but they should communicate and have a general openness to new ideas. There should be enough differences in viewpoints that they have something interesting to say to each other. Biolos (1996) maintained “…a homogeneous group whose members are prone only to agree with one another will typically not promote high levels of creativity” (p. 14).

Broken barriers can also have a positive influence on the organization. Entrepreneur Herman Cain discussed this very topic during the Executive Leadership Banquet during the 2005 residency at Regent University. He stated that the purpose of leadership was to “remove barriers” that prevent followers from succeeding. London (2001) listed numerous barriers that not only prevent followership development but leadership development as well. Among others, he listed discrimination, sexual harassment, lack of confidence, Role conflict (e. g., being a boss and colleague), inadequate experience/training for a key assignment, disapproval by others (especially public criticism), uncertainty about the future (e.g., because of a sudden change), and lack of information. (p. 218). Some of these barriers can sneak up slowly giving leaders time to adjust to the situation, as well as time to avoid the barrier thereby increasing the problem. Other barriers may occur suddenly and have detrimental affects on the organization. The important task is that leaders learn how to recognize and deal with these barriers!

The Indispensable Quality: Strategy

People often hunger for something greater than themselves. “Work without purpose (even if it takes great skill) can become mindless, heartless drudgery” (Woolfe, 2002, p. 24). People must have a common goal to work towards. Some call it vision, some call it foresight. Which ever the case, it involves leading with a purpose. Leaders who offer that will never have a shortage of followers. Purpose forced the fisherman to drop their nets and follow Jesus. Purpose compelled the woman at the well to drop her water pot and spread the good news. “Your passion for something is an indication of what you find worthy in and of itself” (Kouzes and Posner, 2002, p. 112).

The purpose of each prophet was that each in his own way would keep an entire nation on task. Moses’ purpose was to lead the Hebrews out of Egypt to the edge of the Promised Land. Joshua’s purpose was to lead them in and Solomon’s was to build a temple, not for his own glory, but for the glory of a higher purpose. Woolfe (2002) maintained “When a leader is dedicated to a purpose, and when all the ‘troops’ see that dedication is unwavering and ‘for real,’ great things happen (p. 27). Strategic leadership involves not only creating a vision but articulating and executing that vision as well.

Strategic Leadership involves the relationship of the external environment to choices about vision, mission, strategy, and their implementation. The organizational vision reflects the environment and works in concert with the organization’s mission (values, purpose, etc.). Strategy provides directions for translating the vision into action and is the basis for developing methods for implementation. Strategic leadership theory explains how changes in the organization’s environment affects the relative power of leaders. Yukl (2002) identified three factors that affect the ability of leaders to influence the performance of the organization: 1) The evolutionary stage of the organization; 2) Political power within the organization; and 3) The leader’s time in office (p. 348 – 352). Simply stated, the opportunity of a leader’s vision to impact the performance of an organization is greatly affected by historical factors such as the evolution of the organization, the leader’s level of influence, and his executive tenure.

Strategic Leadership involves the relationship of the external environment to choices about vision, mission, strategy, and their implementation. The organizational vision reflects the environment and works in concert with the organization’s mission (values, purpose, etc.). Strategy provides directions for translating the vision into action and is the basis for developing methods for implementation. Strategic leadership theory explains how changes in the organization’s environment affects the relative power of leaders. Yukl (2002) identified three factors that affect the ability of leaders to influence the performance of the organization: 1) The evolutionary stage of the organization; 2) Political power within the organization; and 3) The leader’s time in office (p. 348 – 352). Simply stated, the opportunity of a leader’s vision to impact the performance of an organization is greatly affected by historical factors such as the evolution of the organization, the leader’s level of influence, and his executive tenure.

When I reported as the Chief Engineer aboard USS SAMUEL B. ROBERTS (FFG 58), I asked the Commanding Officer, my mentor and boss, where he saw the department going. He made a vague comment and turned the question around, and ask—"Where do you see the department going?" I became somewhat puzzled with his response. He was purposefully being vague and not answering my question because it was my job, as the Chief Engineer, to create the vision and direction for my department.

I should have been thinking about where I saw the department going, what it will take to get there, and how it fits into the Command’s overall strategy. The conclusion I arrived at became my most important motivational tool, and helped to align resources and to keep people focused on the tasks at hand. “The most important role of visions in organizational life is to give focus to human energy.” (Kouzes and Posner, 2002, p. 130). An effective vision is a leader’s most important motivational tool; you’ll refer to it time and again, explaining its benefits and relevance to various audiences as you work to keep them on board. Maxwell (1993) asserts “People do not follow a dream in itself. They follow the leader who has that dream and the ability to communicate it effectively. Therefore, vision in the beginning will make a leader, but for that vision to grow and demand a following, the leader must take responsibility for it” (p. 141).

More Than Logic

Leadership is not just about logic and reason. They have their place but there is much more to it than that. Acknowledging that it is not all rational is a major step toward accepting that there is something more important – people’s feelings and emotions. Kippenberger (2002) maintained that “Leaders need to understand that at the heart of what they are trying to do is getting the best out of people.” (p. 113).

To gain and keep the commitment of followers, the leader/follower relationship has to be nurtured. “Leadership is a relationship between those who aspire to lead and those who choose to follow.” (Kouzes & Posner, 2002, p. 20). Diplomacy requires that we not only know and control our own emotions but also learn how to recognize and handle other people’s emotions as well. What a leader achieves today depends on the people they are leading, and the best way to succeed is to get them to give their best. “The job of a leader is to achieve a goal – that is the end, leading people is the means” (Kippenberger, 2002, p. 114).

Communicating Authenticity

Authenticity is hard to develop and harder to coach. “Since authenticity is a way of being as a leader rather than things you do as a leader, few instructions are outwardly helpful.” (Pearce, 2003, p. 11). Responsibility for authenticity, then, belongs to the leader. Through a combination of introspection and discipline, they have to find their authentic voice and amplify it so that it resonates with their followers.

One of the most difficult tasks for those who would measure and evaluate leadership is the task of trying to look at the elements that make up leadership. One way to look at these elements is to suggest that a leader has various skills, also has or exercises a distinctive style and, still more elusive, has various qualities that may be pronounced. By skill, I mean the capacity to do something well. Something that is learnable and can be improved, such as speaking or negotiating or planning. Most leaders need to have technical skills (such as writing well); human relations skills, the capacity to supervise, inspire, build coalition and so on; and also what might be called conceptual skills – the capacity to play with ideas, shrewdly seek advice and forge grand strategy. Skills can be examined. Skills can be taught. And skills plainly make up an important part of leadership capability. Skills alone, however, cannot guarantee success.


Biolos, Jim (1996, August). Harvard Management Update: Six Steps Toward Making a Team Innovative. Boston, MA. Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation.

Herman Cain (Entrepreneur). (2005, September 15). The Regent University Executive Leadership Series. [Banquet]. Virginia Beach, VA. Regent University, School of Leadership Studies.

Holy Bible (1997). King James Version Study Bible. Grand Rapids, MI. Zondervan.

Hunter, James C. (2004). World's Most Powerful Leadership Principle: How to Become a Servant Leader. Westminster, MD: Crown Publishing Group. Retrieved March 8, 2006, from http://site.ebrary.com/lib/regent/Doc?id=10064922&ppg=145.

Kippenberger, Tony. (2002). Leadership Styles. Oxford UK. Capstone Publishing Ltd.

Kouzes, James M. and Posner, Barry Z. (2002). The Leadership Challenge. Third Edition. San Francisco, CA. Jossey-Bass Publishing.

Lassiter, David (2001) The Leader - Follower Partnership: It's a New Day. Leadership Advantage. [http://www.leadershipadvantage.com/leaderFollowerPartnership.shtml]

London, Manuel. (2001). Leadership Development: Paths to Self-Insight and Professional Growth. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Incorporated.

Malpurs, Aubrey. (2003). Being Leaders. The Nature of Authentic Christian Leadership. Grand Rapids, MI. Baker Books.

Maxwell, John C. (1993). Developing the Leader Within You. Nashville, TN. Thomas Nelson Inc.

McGregor, Douglas. (2006). The Human Side of Enterprise. Annotated Edition by Joel Gutcher-Gershenfeld. New York, NY. McGraw-Hill.

Pearce, Terry (2003). Leading Out Loud : Inspiring Change Through Authentic Communication. San Francisco, CA. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Solum, Lawrence B. (2003, January) "Virtue Jurisprudence: A Virtue-Centered Theory of Judging". Metaphilosophy, Vol. 34, No. 1/2, pp. 178-213, Retrieved electronically27 February, 2006. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/Delivery.cfm/SSRN_ID369940_code030116630.pdf?abstractid=369940&mirid=1

Woolfe, Lorin. (2002). Bible on Leadership: From Moses to Matthew - Management Lessons for Contemporary Leaders. New York, NY. AMACOM.

Yukl, Gary (2002). Leadership in Organizations. 5th Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ. Prentice Hall.

Nature Vs Nurture - A Sociological Approach to Feral, Isolated, and Institutionalized Children

A common question related to sociology deals with the nature of the human being versus the way it is raised. Does one know if he is a boy or a girl upon birth, or does he make this distinction based on the actions and words of those around him? How does prison affect the functionality of a person once he is released to the world? These questions are strongly related to the nature versus nurture - does a human enter the world with basic human function, or does he develop these functions as a result of those around him.
One topic sociologists may study is feral children. These are children that were deserted at a very young age, with death usually the intention of the parents, but were rather raised and groomed by animals. Sociologists found that children raised by animals acquired the instincts and behaviors of the species that raised them. One example of this occurred in the 1700s, when a feral child known as "the wild boy of Aveyron" was discovered by scientists of the day. He was found in France in 1798, and it was observed that he walked on all fours, did not indicate pain related to cold temperatures, and pounced on small animals - devouring them raw in ravenous fashion. Although most sociologists will discard the significance of feral children because of the sparseness of cases, it still teaches us a lesson that children must learn how to act at a young age. This essential time of youth is when children develop many essential social behaviors.
A slightly more common study is on isolated children. These are children that were raised by one person or a small group of persons in an isolated area with minimal or no contact to a typical society. One girl, Isabelle, was raised by her deaf, mute mother in the attic of her grandfather. Upon being discovered at the age of 6, it was found that she could not talk, and rather relied on gestures to communicate with her mother. She also had a disease called rickets as a result of an inadequate diet and a lack of sunshine. This basically made her legs useless. Her behavior towards strangers, men especially, was like a wild animal. She treated them with fear and hostility - and could only make noise in the way of strange croaks. Initially she scored nearly zero on an IQ test - but because Isabelle was discovered at such a young age, she was able to reach the learning level expected from her age in two years. It is possible that results of isolation can be reversed if the child is younger than twelve. The primary problem, however, was a lack of a language, which is basic to all human interaction. All other interaction can be divided into sub categories to vocal communication.
These first two studies, isolated and feral children, can be viewed through one of Charles Horton Cooley's theories on human interaction. Cooley, who lived in the late 1800s, created a theory that summed up how human development occurs, capturing the theory in the concept of 'the looking glass self'. This theory had three primary elements: we imagine how we appear to those around us, we interpret others' reactions, and we develop a self concept. The basic gist of it is that we look at those around us, and base our appearance and social interactions on what they do and what they expect. If a feral child is raised by animals, he is going to acquire the attributes of those animals. Likewise, an isolated child will base his actions on other isolated individuals or no one, and will develop little or no basic interaction skill.
Still more common than isolated or feral children is institutionalized children. Two or three centuries ago, orphanages were much different than they are now. Children were raised with little or no care on a strict schedule. On top of this, children were often beaten, ragged, and denied food. As a result, children coming from orphanages tended to have difficulty establishing close bonds with others, and have lower IQs. In an account of a good Iowa orphanage in the 1930s, children were raised in the nursery until about six months. They were placed in cribs that had tall sides, effectively limiting vision to the world around them. No toys were hung from the cribs, not mother held them closely. The interaction they did get was limited to nurses who changed diapers, bedding, and provided them medication. Although everyone assumed that mental retardation was a "he was just born that way" issue, two sociologists investigated and followed the lives of the children who were raised in this Iowa orphanage. H. M. Skeels and H. B. Dye began to understand that a lack of mental stimulation was depriving these children of the basic human interaction skills they needed to be effective members of society. In a study, they took thirteen children who were obviously retarded and assigned them a retarded woman who would look after them. They also chose twelve children who would be raised in the orphanage the usual way, and tested both groups for IQ. The first group was noted to develop an intense relationship with their respective 'mothers', and received much more
attention than their counterparts. While all of the studied children were still retarded, it was noted that the first group's IQs spiked by a jaw-dropping average of 28 points. In an equally startling statistic, it was found that the other group's average dropped by an average of 30 IQ points. This study demonstrated the importance of human interaction at a young age.
A final lesson can be taken from deprived animals. These are animals that were stripped from their mother at a young age and raised in isolation. A famous study regarding this topic was conducted by Harry and Margaret Harlow, who raised a baby monkey in isolation. They constructed two 'mothers' for their monkey, one which was a wire frame with a nipple on it from which the monkey could nurse, and one that was covered in soft fabric. They found that even though the first mother provided nourishment, the baby would cling to the soft mother when frightened, showing that the monkey felt more comfortable through intimate physical contact - or cuddling.
When the monkey was introduced to a monkey community, he was rejected, and had no concept of how normal monkey civilization was structured. He knew neither how to play normally with the other monkeys, nor how to engage in sexual intercourse, despite several feeble attempts.
Upon conducting this study with female monkeys, they found that those that did become pregnant became vicious mothers - they struck their babies, kicked them, or crushed them against the floor. These were monkeys who were raised in this isolated environment for years, and had no chance of integration to society. Other monkeys were observed to overcome these disabilities with increasingly positive results: a corresponding relationship with the amount of time spent in isolation. Monkeys isolated for three to six months were relatively easily integrated, while monkeys isolated for years suffered irreversible effects. When applied to humans, we understand that social interaction is key to a socially efficient product.
In short, society makes us human. Babies do not naturally develop into adults, and social ideas are not transferred via DNA. Although the body may grow, isolation victimizes them to be little more than mere animals. In fact, a lack of language skill results in an inability to even grasp the relations between people - such as father, mother, teacher and friend. In order to develop into an adult, children must be surrounded by people who care for them. This process called "socialization" shows that we are crafted by those around us.

What Is Your Running Philosophy?

There's a lot of different motivations that people can have to run. Some people run for health or to lose weight. Other people just like the social aspects. And those are certainly big benefits that I enjoy, but they aren't the main reason that I run.

Discovering why you run can help you direct your training and which races you are going to attend, and will help you decide when it might be time to play it safe and back off in your training or when the rewards justify pushing your own limits to see just how close to red-lining you can get without actually forcing an injury on yourself.

The big thing for me has always been the competition aspect of running. That's just been one of the greatest motivations for me to get out there.

I like being able to test yourself against how you ran in the past, and how you can run against everybody in your community. With some of the bigger races, I love how you can run against people across the country or across the world, and how when you toe the starting line, there's little to no difference between you and your fellow man. You can be racing a field of elite runners, but the course they run is the same course that you will. It's just fascinating to me.

Now as I've gotten older I've found that I like pushing my limits and running further and further. This isn't to say that I'm enjoying things that others can't do because most people are certainly capable of doing the same feats that I've done. I've found it's just more interesting to do things that other people won't necessarily choose to go out and do and which they wouldn't consider anybody who does do these sorts of events to be in their right mind.

For example, some of my favorite races to date have involved running for 50 miles out in the desert, or racing 50 kilometers back and forth on a 2 mile stretch of road in 97 degree heat. Those are the kind of things I actually enjoy doing that most others would never even consider. I find them fun, just running for hours on end.

The biggest thing anyone can do is just to get out there and make sure that you enjoy whatever activity you are taking part in and to find whatever your motivations are. Once you find what they are, latch on to them and run with it.

Unveiling the Mask of Philosophy Essay

In this weeks journal we are discussing the essays of Kucklick, Outlaw, Locke, and West. "The Changing Character of Philosophizing in America", an essay about the periods of philosophy and how it had an impact in shaping philosophy. "Philosophy, African-Americans, and the Unfinished American Revolution", an essay reasoning why African American philosophy was suppressed and what this has done to the future of philosophy. "Good Reading", an essay on the character of philosophy. And "Philosophy, Politics, and Power: An Afro-American Perspective", an essay on African-Americans having a revolution.

"The Changing Character of Philosophizing in American" started off in the middle of the seventeenth century...the First World War I. Kucklick discusses how during this time early philosophy started off with the Puritans and how priests were considered to be the philosophers. At this time philosophers were considered to be the "public man." Kucklick says how these thinkers based their ideas off of human, nature, the divine, godly ways (the bible). Later Kucklick goes on to talk about the second period, which was the first third of the eighteenth century, World War II.

During this time science was starting to come into play. This is when you have your Newton and Locke stirring up conflict with those who based things on the divine and spiritual truth. Newton came in and had people realizing that science played a role in the development of philosophy. With this you have Jonathan Edwards, Cotton Mather, and Benjamin Franklin coming into the picture and realizing that there was a union between science, philosophy, and religion...Kucklicks third period, after World War II, the twentieth century is when things started to become more technical. Your philosophers came to be known as your teachers, professors, and some of your politicians. This brought techniques of popularity and ideas from the past to be the barrier between the different philosophers. Kucklick goes on to talk about how the future of philosophy was going down hill. The philosophers he called "ignorantly provincial, naïve, and woolly-minded", stating that philosophers have disregarded the history of philosophy.

"Philosophy, African-Americans, and the Unfinished American Revolution", starts off giving you the background of the word philosophy, which came to be known as the realm of the architect and custodian of the specifications of what it means to be human. This came was said to come from the people in Europe, which claimed themselves to be the only ones who knew where knowledge came from. Outlaw goes on to talk about how politics had an affect on philosophy dealing with the social classes between very wealthy and the working class. He also goes into great detail about the suppression of African-Americans. He seems to believe that these philosophers were basing everything on the White-Americans. When they were not the only ones there. It was as if they had forgot that when they came over that they brought Africans with them and the Indians were already there. They only looked at their traditions and their culture. Which bring forth the question, how can you say there is no such thing as African American Philosophy? What makes your background philosophy and mine not? Outlaw still thinks that blacks are still going through this suppression, but we are to blind to even realize this.

"Good Reading," and" Philosophy, Politics, and Power: An Afro-American Perspective", talked about what philosophy was and what it has become. Both of these essays discuss the emphasis that used to be placed on philosophy and how now it has turned into something that no one really pays that much attention to anymore. Philosophy has become one of those things that bores people and can only be understood by the intellects. But, West also has another idea. He speaks of a revolution of blacks that he thinks should take place soon.

To conclude these readings have torn us in many directions on where to find out what the animal African- American Philosophy really is. From Kucklicks theory from the Bible to Outlaws idea of suppression one can see that there is an animal called African-American Philosophy, and we have just discovered it.

Corporate Politics

Unfortunately for much of the corporate world, the daily grind includes politics within the work group. Regardless of what level the company is on within the corporate world, when workers come together in a hierarchical system there are always those jockeying for position, which always falls to political competition.

In a corporate environment, there are extensive checks and balances to ensure proper work flow, and efficiency. These checks and balances are usually mandatory to the proper function of the company, but can in fact cause problems when the employees enforcing them become motivated by personal gain, as opposed to that of the work group. In most cases corporate politics become an innate property of the companies system of checks and balances. When this happens those in positions of authority are being pressed to retain their position, by those above them. In other words, the president of the company makes sure the vice president knows that if he doesn't perform to a certain standard, his position could be in jeopardy. By doing this, he places a level of pressure on the vice president, which in turn causes the vice president to do what it takes to retain his image of being the correct person for his position. To retain this image, whether or not a worker performs adequately to do so, the worker will often use political means.

A worker motivated by political means will typically take measures to make others look less adequate, such as making them hardly visible in the companies eye, or highlighting their mistakes, and covering up their successes. Unfortunately this behavior will almost certainly trickle down the hierarchy of authority to the lowest level.

As a solution to corporate politics it is best to do one of two things; either take a accordingly aggressive position, or an acceptably passive position. If you intend to surpass your boss you're going to have to outshine him. To do this you will have to be under the same eye that he is. In order to outshine your boss you will have to be more aggressive than he is, and ensure you never show flaw when checked upon, regardless of his glamorizing of your flaws. On the contrary if you have no intention of passing your boss, you should show absolutely no sign of being a competitor. By doing so you will show your boss that he has nothing to worry about, and thus will not pay your interests any more attention than as needed.

Dysfunctional Politics

When can we be sure when our political system has gone so "nuts" and become so incredibly dysfunctional that we must be concerned that anything is ever accomplished by elected officials? When a bill to provide medical and health benefits to the true heroes of 9/11/01, the rescue workers, is filibustered in Congress, so that it could not even be voted on, because some legislators felt it was the best way to "hold hostage" other legislators to assure that they extend the tax benefits bill, perhaps we have exceeded the limits or edge of human decency? Whether one supports extension of the tax cuts or opposes it is not the issue here, but rather the political reasoning that makes one believe it is proper and okay to simply use such a tactic!

Depending on the political spin, the bill has been described as an extension of the Bush tax cuts, a tax reduction (or conversely, if not extended, a tax increase), necessary, or excessively costly. While all the politicians have seemingly endorsed the extension for the middle class (being defined as couples earning under $250,000), the debate has been about extending the cuts for the wealthiest Americans. The more heated debate has been about the provision regarding the Estate tax, with discussions ranging from stating that any estate tax is wrong, to a debate regarding at what dollar figure it "kicks" in. Certainly a debate regarding estate taxes over $3.5 million or more does not directly impact the majority of Americans, yet the loss of that tax revenue might impact substantially. Bundled together in this legislation that has been described as a compromise is the extension of unemployment benefits. When one considers that the official unemployment rate is still close to ten percent, one can readily see how much that will cost.

One might objectively question how anyone can refer to themselves as being fiscally responsible when agreeing to continue deficits approaching two trillion dollars. Yet, while elected officials enjoy posturing about how responsible and responsive they are to the needs of the public, one might question how America will pay for all this, and for how many generations will the interest payment on the national debt continue to be a burden on this nation.

Commodities remain at or near all time highs. Gold is very high because so few people are confident in the economy, or any currency, and many view gold as a hedge. Oil and gas prices are rapidly escalating, and a gallon of gas is at a near record high. Yet, our politicians don't include gas prices in their indexes, and don't want to remember than many manufacturers have merely created smaller sizes, and say we have very little inflation. I think we have reached that point of being dysfunctional!

Intriguing Facts About The Human Brain

The human brain is one of the complicated organs in the human system, understanding how the brain works is a whole subject by itself. In fact research has never had a conclusive report of the functions of the brain. However, the available facts about the human brain can help anyone understand bits about the power of the brain. The brain has several organs charged with different functions; each organ functions determine how well activities are carried around the brain. For instance the frontal lobe has some organs which are charged to perform acts of feelings, memory etc.

So how does it work? Well, take for instance, an individual finds themselves inclined to sleep should lights go off when they are in a room, what happens in this scenario is that the brain produces some chemicals known as serotonin and dopamine to affect this effect. One should understand that this happens automatically. The brain controls an individual behaviors drive to achieve success and so on.

The brain is the controlling head of nervous system. A human brain is protected by thick bones of skull and weighs about 1.5 kg. Human brain is much larger than other mammals and its Cerebral Cortex (located in forebrain) is mainly responsible for most of the expansion. Forebrain's frontal lobes control the executive functions of human beings such as planning, controlling motivating and abstract thinking.

The Central purpose of the brain is to control the body's actions and reactions in response to other actions. It receives all the sensory information from the body and rapidly analyses it and then sends messages to the body organs as it is explained in the following lines:
(1) Our body's balance, posture and movements are controlled by Cerebellum
(2) The Brainstem controls our heart beat breathe and conscious related brain functions.
(3) Our special thinking and learning of routine life is controlled by neocortex.

Many scientists believe that the area located in the forehead of the brain (prefrontal cortex) has the key role in forming short-term memory. The evidence of this fact is that many types of scans like MRI and PET have shown that prefrontal cortex always appeared busy at the time of casualty. Prefrontao cortex holds a flexible storage of information that always has a relevance to the current in-hand task.

The most appealing thing is the connection between consciousness and the memory. A recollected observation is just real like a current memory experience. Anyway, discoveries and fact revealing about memory and the brain are still in progress and much more is expected to come to know about brain mysteries in the future.
As mentioned earlier, people can manipulate their brains to achieve desired success, it is very important for an individual to know how to take advantage of laws of attraction when it comes to personal development acts. Self help practices such as self affirmation acts play a great role when it comes to affecting lifestyle change, one should always think positive so as to achieve what they desire in life.

The Three Tyrants - Bully Archetypes

In the old days bullying was a bizarre culture taken lightly, if not completely tolerated. There seems to be an adherence to the philosophy that the strong must conquer the weak. This is exactly the kind of ideology that breeds oppression in every facet of society we live in. As times changed, institutions always reformed and changes in civil conduct have often been for the better. It has been thus understood that the very reason as to why bullies get away with what they want is because the stooges, intentionally or not, have allowed themselves to be victimized. Throughout history, people always stand up to tyranny. The lessons brought by these heroes defining these legacies educate young generation in their schools. It is here that some of the strong and quick-witted young ones have learned at the earliest that one ought to stand up to them and put them in their place.

First rule of the ancient code of the Art of Warstates that one should, "know thyself, and know thy enemy, then a hundred engagements would be victorious." There are three types of bully archetypes and these are the following:

I. The Dumb Brute

A dumb brute very much explains itself literally. You see a lot of these types in movies featuring a huge barrel-chested individual with poor logic and speech command. However, for the purpose of this article we should not limit to the description of what we can immediately perceive. More than it's literal meaning, a dumb brute archetype, regardless of his or her physical attributes, signifies a persons incapability to see more than one perspective. One should expect that due to their poor intelligence and great lack of wisdom, they tend to see things either black or white, but nothing in between. They have extremely poor argumentative skills and when defeated in this area, they either retaliate through tantrums or violent physical outburst. Indeed, their lack of intelligence often seem intolerable to most people. They are great amusement tools to toy around for a cunning individual who wants to put them in their place, and anyone can be creative with punishing them. They are the most common and most benign compared to other bully archetypes.

II. The Narcissist

The most apparent thing about these bully archetypes is that the individuals classified under this persona are very arrogant and conceited. They are so full of themselves and they are willing to demonstrate their dominance over their victims. Unlike Dumb Brutes, the Narcissists have a very high level of charisma and they have a sense of purpose - to show others that they are inferior compared to them. They have beauty or talent or even both in their arsenal, and they illicit public approval in order to torment their victims. But a narcissist, in the eyes of the perceptive and wise, can always be seen as someone being tormented by his or her own insecurity. The one thing they fear the most is that someone else will surpass them. It is their worst nightmare. A narcissist bully can be put into his or her own place if someone explicitly can make him or her feel inferior about one thing.

III. The Archfiend

The arch-fiend is equivalent to someone with a mastermind personality. Compared to the Dumb Brute and the Narcissist, an Archfiend is someone who ought to be watched or kept at bay as much as possible. They are ruthless, especially in terms of mental abuse. They have a fairly high level of intelligence and they really exploit a victim's weak spot. They do not have a misplaced sense of importance like the Narcissist and the only reason why they victimize other is simply because they can get away with it. Their cunning have the makings of Hitler and Rasputin in them. In order to deal with them, one must be prepared for desperate and equally ruthless measures that may go beyond moral decency. These guys are mean enough to ruin one's life. They are sadists and they would never play fair. The very thing that gives them power is the fact that they believe they can get away with everything. It requires taxing dedication and energy to catch them red-handed with nefarious schemes, but it is worth the effort if one is determined to teach them a lesson. Despite their evil, they still fear persecution and judgment. It gets ugly for them if one does not simply chase them for the law, but rather have the law go after their heads.

What Is the Cost of School Uniforms?

Uniforms are one of the most important things as student needs in his everyday school life. For you to choose what uniform to buy, you must know that you need something durable, comfortable and as much as possible affordable.

In the United States, It has been known that uniforms rarely come in cheap prices, but rest assured that these uniforms are of the highest quality. School uniforms are most of the time required by many schools to give identity to the students.

The following is a small list on how much school uniforms would cost:

    * Dickies Boys 8-20 Short Sleeve Pique Polo - School Uniform is a short sleeve polo shirt. This shirt is usually common to little kids but is also used by older students. This shirt features satin release system. Its selling price is $8.99-$10.90.
    * Lands' End School Uniform Boys' Slim Stain & Wrinkle Resistant Cargo Shorts is a pair of short pants used by students for its comfort and durability. Its selling price is $25.50.
    * Shoes like School Issue Little Kid/Big Kid Semester Uniform Shoe is a timeless piece of work where students of all ages can say that they wore these kind of shoes somewhere in their life. This classic shoe is endowed with modern comfort. It has a traditional lace-up front detailed topstitching and it has a full-tractioned sole which gives the user a feeling of being more laid back. This shoe sells for $35.95

The costs for ladies' uniforms are almost the same with the cost of uniform for boys. If there is a difference, it would not be so large of a difference so whether you use these uniforms for everyday haggle with your school; it does not matter. You can be sure that these uniforms are durable and would last a long time.

How can I compare prices and save?

If you have found a private school already, there's a good chance that they already have a contract with a company that will issue them at a discounted rate. Most schools however, will allow you to look outside through other companies. There are many places that you can search for clothing, depending on your school's dress code.

For example, if your school requires that you wear a white polo for boys, you can basically purchase these types of clothing via many stores such as Walmart and more. The prices mentioned above are some that you can use to get a good idea.

Social Work Pay And Types of Jobs

Many people hesitate about getting a career working with people due to fears that the pay will be very low. You may be surprised that some social workers can earn a good living. There are some entry level positions that don't pay much and require a great deal of family work as well as paper work. Nonetheless, the job can be very fulfilling because there can so much satisfaction in watching someone achieve true change. People who really want to make a difference in society often overlook the low pay. Their greatest reward is improving the lives of the people in the community. However, over time, people can burn out or become dissatisfied with the pay not providing sufficient funds for one's lifestyle. There are ways to move up within an agency, add on a private practice, become a supervisor for students and other ways to increase one's income.

With time and experience, the pay rate will continually climb. The starting salaries often are determined by the amount of education you received before starting to work. You will even have to factor in the region in which you want to work. Also, there are many different types of social work, and each factor in the amount of money you can make. Some types of counseling can be in high security settings such as prisons and the pay often reflects this type of situation. In the educational areas of this career, starting salary is between thirty and thirty six thousand dollars a year.

You'll want to apply to many networks for insurance as this will also increase the types of counseling centers you can work in. If you wish to get into private practice, this is important as well because you'll need to be able to take a variety of insurances unless you wish to use only cash pay methods. You will not only reap the rewards of the awesome and inspiring work you do, but you can also make a decent living. The great thing about this type of work is that it is always needed, so it is practically recession proof. Also, the longer you work the higher your pay becomes. This career path is never static. You may want to be a hospice social worker, go into forensics, work with the elderly or do family counseling. You will never get bored with this type of work as you are constantly faced with new challenges and problems to solve.

Business Survival - Planning for a Rainy Day

There may be nothing worse for a business than to have its owner suddenly die...especially if it's your business.

Let's look at what can happen to a business when an owner dies.

Todd Carpenter was the 55-year-old sole owner of a successful construction company. Todd hoped to sell his company to a third party in the next 18 months.

What Todd needed was a way to ensure that his company would survive if he died or became disabled during that period. Before he could put any plan into place, Todd was killed in a tragic traffic accident. Soon after his death, key employees left the company for jobs with more certain futures. They feared that the company might not continue without Todd's leadership and personal financial backing.

The employees' departures caused a decrease in revenues, as well as the default of a number of contracts, which exposed the company to significant liabilities. Long-time customers grew uneasy with what they perceived to be a rudderless ship and moved their business to Todd's competitors. Todd's bank grew uneasy as well and decided to call in his company's debt; debt Todd had personally guaranteed.

Within weeks of Todd's death, his key managers were gone, his company defaulted on a number of contracts, revenues plummeted, customers jumped ship and any prospects of securing replacement financing quickly disappeared.

As you can see, business continuity planning is vitally important to your company. Without a well thought out "survival plan," the consequences to employees, customers and, most importantly, your family and estate are dire. (Don't think that your estate will escape the notice of your business creditors.)

Fortunately, there are a number of methods sole owners can implement today to help avoid the type of business collapse that Todd Carpenter's business experienced.

First, to keep key employees on board after your demise, offer ownership; perhaps via a buy-sell agreement, or offer additional compensation if key employees stay on or continue to run the company. The amount of compensation can be tied directly to the company's profitability and continued success. As an additional incentive, offer these employees a substantial bonus (called a "stay bonus") for staying with the company; one that can be funded with insurance that can be accessed in case of your death.

Second, alert your bank to your succession plans. Meet with your banker to discuss the arrangements you have made and show him or her that insurance to affect these plans is in place. Make sure your creditors are comfortable with your succession plan. Ask them what arrangements they would like to see in place.

Third, create a written plan that states:
1) who should take on the responsibility of running the business;
2) whether the business should be sold (and if so, to whom), continued or liquidated; and
3) who your heirs should consult regarding the sale, continuation or liquidation of the company.

Finally, work closely with a capable insurance professional to make certain the necessary insurance products, such as funding for the stay bonus or buy-sell agreement, are purchased by the proper entity, (you, your trust or the business) for the right reason and for the right amount.

Not sure where to begin? Contact your business advisory team - attorney, banker, insurance agent, CPA - for recommendations.

Using Free Government Money To Help You Start A New Business

A lot of people do not know that the government gives away millions of dollars every year for people to start up new businesses. If you have been thinking of starting a new business and the only thing holding you back is the financial resources, then looking at government grants would be a great way to get off the ground.

The best thing about these government grants is that it is completely different than trying to get a loan from the bank. This is money that the government gives you that you never have to pay back. Because most businesses operate in the negative for at least a first year due to start up costs, attaining one of these business grants would allow you to be profitable from the very beginning.

You might be wondering why the government would be willing to give out money to people to start businesses when the economy is already in such bad shape. The reason is because if someone is willing to start a new business, then that person is obviously driven enough to make it work. If the business thrives, it'll open up a whole new set of jobs which will then in return help the economy. There are thousands of people out of work today that have been trying to find jobs for well over a year. If new companies begin to open, hopefully a lot of these people will be able to find work.

Every year there are millions of dollars that are not given away just because people do not know that they have an opportunity to apply for these grants. The amount of grants that are available is also quite large. Getting some free government money to open up a business is just the beginning. There are also grants for things such as fixing up your home, going to school in a variety of other things. So just because you are looking at a government grant to help you with your business, don't pass by any other opportunities that may be available to you.


How Much Have The Present Economic Crisis Affected People Globally?

At this present slump economy which had affected the working class globally, what will be the common phrases do you hear from family members, friends, neighbours and newspaper.

"Honey, I lost my job" next "Our Company had laid-off a few hundred workers" next "We are financially strapped, how we are going to pay our daily bills" next "XXX Company is laying off hundreds of workers to reduce cost".

The International Labour Organisation predicted about 20 million people going to lose their jobs with ongoing of this fearful economic crisis.

Everybody have to put on their austerity belt to offset daily expenditures and cutting cost over unnecessary expenses.

Battling a deepening recession, some parents even scale back or abandon day care services, keeping their children at home under the care of their grandparents.

Many people have to upend their work life balance because petrol and food prices have become prohibitive and the average day care costs outpace rent and mortgage payments even for those drawing salaries. Even after a sharp decline in petrol prices.

It's not low wage earners feel the pinch but also hit those people who thought they were safe from this troubling economy for a while.

Governments around the world must find solution to unemployment, and the rate is jumping to a higher figure dramatically.

People need to work, they cannot be left without work, and gone are the days where you can make choices of the types of occupation according to your interest, and it's a grab whatever job is available situation for the sake of living hood.


What is actually on everybody's mind now?

Most people might be worried about the dreadful financial crisis, work, money situation or your wealth.

Is it all that you should do? "NO" let us focus on the current economic crisis and start learning from the impact and brave ourselves to face the worst and to better our survival tactics.

First informal, here is a new perspective for those whom are worried about their money.
"Wealth is not how much money you have. Wealth is what you're left with when you lose all your money" quoted by Roger Hamilton.

Now what are you left with, when all your money goes?

You may have forgotten about your personal wealth that you have accumulated over the years, those skills that you learn, knowledge absorbed from society, the network of associates and finally the character that had matured over difficult periods.

Stop, stop, stop, all the worries, instead focus on building and expanding a quality business network with your knowledge and skills. For those, working class people, look for more part time jobs available around your community.

One must also stop caring about reputation, but to focus and refine our character, because you have zero influences on your reputation.

It is what people think of you, and that you have total influences on your own character and your mindset.


Most Financial Management courses, educate its student about the positive correlation between risk and return at the beginner stage.

The higher the risk of an investment with higher return of profit and that is vice versa of course.
Institutional and private investors who critically acquired high yielding sub-prime financial structured instruments disregarded this fundamental principle.

Most of the re-packaging and re-selling of sub-prime mortgage risks will not eliminate the ultimate credit default risk that is based on credit standing of the end borrower and not the emitting banks.

But yet numerous financial institutions and private investors keep purchasing these high yielding sub-prime instruments or debentures and should we follow them blindly?

Well, the answer is to put forward questions to the financial promoters were;

Why does this instrument offer such a high yield, when promoted as low risk investment?

What will be the risk?

We need to have the transparency of this risk before even having any thoughts of investing into this so call safe investments.

Over confidence is one of the most common traps, people might fall into and must be aware of all the knowledge gaps and perceptual blind spots.

This sort of situation is dangerous as we do not know what we are supposed to know from the financial promoters.

As a matter of facts, most financial institutions did really know what risks they were taking in their books and the same with for the high yield craving investors having risks in their portfolio.

Pay attention to what you really do not know about any business situation before investment done as the quote by Aldous Huxley is right; "Facts do not cease to exist just because they are ignored".

It amplifies the effects of risk ignorance's by Groupthink 2006, a few economists and policy makers warned that the US real estate market would get into deep trouble as soon as US interest rates start to rise again.

This warning was ignored, as these critics were often ridiculed, silenced and forced to adhere to the prevailing mindset of the dominant uncritical majority.

Although clear warning signs of an imminent US real estate crisis were voiced for more than two years, most investors failed to take notice or just ignoring the facts.

So finally, what causes the financial crisis?

It is primarily herd thinking coupled with over confidence, ignorance, egoism and greed with short term focus on exciting growth, personal gains, remuneration and neglect of sustainable long term growth and profitability.

The greedy mind of many investors with its thoughts; "I want to have more and more profits now" as such thinking is value exploitation at its worst. It is the antithesis of value creation as of a responsible investor or business thinker.

As reveal by statics of the world population, which have reached to 6.8 billion people living on this earth to the latest and estimate to increase to 9.0 billion by the year 2050.

Conclusion of today's economic crisis is human error, not by any natural disaster; it is the human's ignorance, greed, egoism which Lord Buddha defines as poison embedded into the human's mind.

As quoted by Albert Einstein "We cannot solve our problems with the same thinking we used when we created them".

As times are getting tougher with the economy and recession stances, will our fellow humans eradicate bad thoughts, wake up, it is time for a new creative renaissance.

The slogan will be; "Revive our economy to reduce sufferings and agony of the recession"

Philosophy of the Economy



1. Introduction.
2. History of development
3. Levels of Development: distinctive points, changes and reason for changes
4. Philosophy of Development
5. Psychology of Development
6. Social changes and consequences of Development
7. Nationalism, Ideologies and Political Systems enforcing them.
8. Economy and Market Forces: Historical Development
9. Globalization and consequences
10. Most Developed Countries different approaches in the modern world
11. From struggle to survive among individuals, societies, countries, blocks of a pro Supply Economy to a Regulated pro balance between Supply and Demand Economy
12. Life in Modern Developed Countries
13. Social tools of acceleration and deceleration.

Chapter I - Introduction

The Globalization has become an irreversible historical process constantly expanding and evolving at the same time the social and economic conditions in the most developed nations have succeeded raising productivity and concentration of capital. The old tools of Economics cannot anymore accommodate these new developments and are not able to establish most favored conditions for such an important to the World and for any individual countries new development to evolve smoothly by avoiding major economical crises and without destroying the environment. Having inadequate Economical Tools creates volatile market conditions which work in conflict with current possibilities of market expansion: this research is to proof the change from a Scarce Economics based on volatile interest rates fluctuations and deregulated speculations into a Market Economics based on market stability, regulated economics and Global Expansion of even small to medium size businesses and investors.

With the current system of Economics even the very resilient US economy will not be able to sustain the ravaging forces of shrinking profit margins and market crashes. It has become obvious for a company to maintain its profitability it must go Global /also National for US and EU/: but the Medium to Small companies and Investors are hardly capable going global in a highly deregulated markets and exchanges.

There are great possibilities in a Global scale for establishing a heavy regulated but at the same time free market place where more individuals from elsewhere will be able to compete in very increasing intellectual competition; this process could be accelerated by increasing the security of doing business and investing capital which will increase the LTV and MTV of the assets and even further to enhance some currently considered liabilities or with very limited LTV and MTV. When doing that the Monetary policies will change because of this extra security so more money will be able to circulate without provoking inflation; then more business and investment will follow and gradually these rules and regulations will envelope more markets around the Globe to establish a Global Market Place for even Medium to Small Business and Investors having such Global access.

This is the end of the shady Trickle Down Economics or the bureaucratized Socialized Economics and the beginning of a real Market Economics /called by me a Market Stability Economics/ because it relies on the Market Competition and on Regulated Business Practices and Direct and Indirect Investment under clearly stated laws and regulations implemented by the Governments but controlled by the Courts.

All these is becoming possible only in the very recent times by the incredible developments of the Internet, related technologies and communications; the fall of the Eastern Communist Block, the expansion of the European Union, the entering of WTO by China and by the expending freedom of business all over the Globe which as a consequence increased Global Productivity, Access to the Market Place, quick jump from Ideas to Realization, opening the Global Employment Market, allowing expanding Global Direct Investment, allowing Internet Education and Self Education. The World has changed forever.

The following is a Philosophical Conception attempting to substantiate the new changes through Historical sequence of developments and conclusions.

Economy is one of the reasons setting our life in motion and moderating our personal desires and behavior with compliance with the social rules of organization to accomplish highly sophisticated structures of societies and countries and lately economic blocks.

Many historical occurrences could be explained by the Economics and the ways individuals and societies are affected by it. The competition among individuals for economical and political advance in any society which competition has grown into Global has always been the way bringing innovations, improvements and progress but in the same time bringing corruption, injustice and the following revolutions and terrorism.

The Individual Desire for Success and the following competition among individuals is in the beginning of relations between individuals and societies as a general driving force which organized societies into countries, empires and economic blocks. A constant struggle between the interests of the society and individual interests is regulated by cultural and religious rules and common laws which moderate and leverage this relationship so the societies could function.

Historically the competition for success has moved from more primitive and physical one using more physical tools and methods for success to more intellectual and abstract one using more intellectual methods for success. So consequently of such changing priorities the social rules of behavior have changed accenting on these constantly evolving values.

Economy is a main field for individuals' competition and also a general tool for comparison among societies; it has been evolving and changing with the new values invoked by the the general intellectualisation. Relativity of a society or group of societies to adjust their values through rules and common laws to fit a Current International Level of Development-CILOD is called Country's /for this society/ Current Level of Development- CCLOD. This philosophical law of Social Relativity SR is to be established based on historical statistics and method of comparisons. Every single moment in history has its CILOD and every society has its CCLOD at any time of its existence.

Why are we attempting to figure out the relativity of historical economic and social development?

The up to now marginal understanding of the processes of human development by the Philosophy over all has being limiting the abilities of different societies to find for themselves best ways for development: thus ideologies such as pro Capitalistic or pro Socialistic, or pro religious Fundamentalistic have been playing role in preventing philosophy to clear the values and reasons for socio-economic progress and development. The disconnection between Philosophy and Economics for some time has fragmented general abilities for comprehending a conclusive system of evaluation and consequential objectivism. Economics has drifted away from philosophical thought to a practical science of statistics and ideological self-adjustments. The desire of practical clearance of ideas has taken over philosophical reevaluations of sometimes subjective values. In context of such ideological more like status quo science of Modern Economics real historical possibilities have been sidelined and obscured as not complying with the "political correctness" and its accents. The same approach certainly applies to the ways different tools of Economics have been evaluated and used however under economic and social pressures Economics has been evolving an examples is the change form the Gold reserve backed currencies in the past to the more abstract current system.

The evaluation of the basic inflationary processes, the most recent effect of high tech developments, Internet and Worldwide Political liberalization causing fast Globalization; even the past changes from Farming driven Economics to Manufacturing Economics and now to Services and Investment Economics have been poorly evaluated not followed into conclusions and consequent resolutions which is to bring a coherent philosophical systems to describe these changes and provide guidelines to the Future; the understanding of Economic and Social tools historically has been very fragmented over the board.

The consequence of such insufficient approaches toward Economics have been many wars, revolutions, totalitarian dictatorships,depressions and most recently the rise of religious fundamentalism and terrorism. One will say that I am going too far in giving the Economics such powers: he or she could be right there are political situation driven by social forces not relating economy on their surface but beyond any socio ideological motion stay pressures of social expectation of certain values and motivations and such pressure is still a product of individuals' desire for competition which was steered to ideological values because of lock of economic competition for majority of individuals to participate, and because governments' role have always been to defend the status quot of socials structures the energies which could be used for such economic competition have been flown into nationalism, racism, chauvinism and the general ideologies as well

If in prospective we evaluate the economic and social reasons for the Second World War as an example when the conception of imperialism at the time by Hitler and by any world powers that appropriating foreign resources and occupying others' assets was considered equitable when if a detail evaluation is done these neighboring countries could have been much more beneficial as trading partners which you can see in the new developments in Europe; Such an example of conceptual misunderstanding of economic and social tools by all of the great powers and Nazi Germany was a result of this mindless war which did not do any good to anyone but after the devastation it made clear that unleashing the dark powers of individuals' powers instead of using their creativity is worthless. In the new world of rising terrorism such misunderstanding of reality by the Most Developed Countries' Governments could have fatal consequences for any country or even for the World. To try to suppress millions of people living in poverty and religious fanaticism is not a feasible way to go forward into a new world when the possibilities of the Current International Level of Development to engage Worldwide individuals into a productive competition are real; denials of opening these opportunities by the Most Developed Countries based on ideologies such as status quo US capitalism or in case Chinese socialism, or European social bureaucratism, or nationalism, or whatever prejudice will only bring tensions, insecurity and environmental disasters..

One will say if there are too many economic and social factors to be put together in a way which can provide comprehensive evaluation, is it correct?

Yes if the information is accumulated with no strict guidelines. In case the principles of this conception is simplicity: not ignoring any major factors for socio-economic development but concentrating on the guiding ones that have the most effect on the projected development.

How competition could be considered main engine of individual and social relations and development?

There are countless numbers of traditional and circumstantial factors in an individual life which play roles in characterizing this individual and his/her correlations and social interactions. The economic factors are limited but very important part of this process. The conditions in which an individual grows up, the stability of day to day life, the possibilities in front of him/her, the positive and negative pressures on him/her by the society; obviously negative economic pressure could have very depressing and mind altering effect on ones character; the lock of opportunities could contribute to ones instability and perplexities. Historically ideologies, religions, nationalism and general culture have helped offset the instability the lock of socio-economic opportunities to the majority. The social structures have established an array of tools to suppress individual Desire for Competition which suppression `historically has been antagonistic based on classes', nationality and other belongings to limit majority of individuals from competing for socio-economic advance. But in a world of low productivity and political chaos such limits of competition ware actually positive for the stability and the survival of these societies

The main competition for individual success has changed not only from physical to intellectual but also from very limited opportunities for particular classes to more general and accessible; this process of opening of socio-economic competition to higher percentage of the population is at its best in the Most Developed Countries which historically have always been the most advance socio-economically thus at any PCLOD the CCLOD of the MDC is basically a result the best adaptability of this country or block at the historical moment to use in a better way Current Possibilities' potentials of their citizens in the most productive at this moment ways. Because in different historical moments different socio-economic structures were working best, examples: the Roman Empire's strong militaristic approach supported by political power needed militaristic organization and social philosophy to dominate the current World thus Roman structures were best reflecting the PCLOD and therefore Rome dominated the known world she was the best adapted under the circumstances. Other examples are ancient Persia, China, and Aztecs in the Americas.

Obviously to base this philosophical conclusion on the approach of evaluating these historical changes the continuity and relativity of these changes have to establish: and it may be best presented as a change of socio-economic philosophy and psychology from pro physical pro manual one reflecting at the time manual labor economic approach as dominating to a pro intellectual one apprehended by the developing high technologies and economic globalization one when intellectual economic approach is dominating. This socio-economic evolution is reflected into historical changes; here it needs to be mentioned that they were periods in the World history when these processes of intellectualization were severely interrupted and even reversed an example are the Dark Ages in Europe, or the Mao's governing of China the changes are not necessary a flowing continuation but more like a spiral like continuation.

Someone will say that this philosophy replicate Marxism for these people my answer is that Marxism was based on development based on struggle between the having and having not classes when this Philosophy of the Economy is based on the historical continues change of historical priorities from physical to intellectual. Which I believe has given the opportunity of the human civilization to advance. So as an example when technologies and socio-economic structures were underdeveloped appropriating foreign resources was the only way was a country to advance into interstates competition therefore the best organized countries were establishing their empires by concurring others and imperialistic foreign policies were supporting them: in such socio-economic environment individuals' competition was redirected into militaristic by nationalism and ideologies Individual Desire for Advance was obviously related to individual advance by militaristic ways. The same principle of timely important values applies to pre historic times when instead the organization militaristic skills of the time of the empires, personal physical personal strength had been much more valuable therefore the "heroes" from the Ancient Greek mythology were compared and related to the gods. When Great Empires before the Great Wars of the 20th Century were occupying the known World the mentality of conquest and spread of civilization was reflected in the literature, economics and science of that time to justify their policies fierce nationalism and chauvinism were promoted by the Governments and other institutions: "the philosophy of being better meant being militarily stronger, and even on a common level that a man is not one unless going through the army" prepared individuals for the armies and multiple devastating wars. Now days such "philosophy" sounds almost comical; people have understood the consequences of wars and they are used only under extreme circumstances.

Throughout history continues accumulated information was needed for successful competition which is another factor for coming to a new Current International Level of Development. Such higher ground can be reached only by expanding and enhancing current possibilities which always are a result of improving economies and political structures. On the ground base improving technologies, trade relations and business environment in any time of history had prompted a new CILOD.

When productivity was low classes based on individuals' background and individuals' access to resources and position in the society have been playing dominant role in societies around the world. Because of the low productivity to maintain "normal" level in the society multiple servants and feudal taxes were needed. Thus the theory of scarce resources was born. To suppress individuals for demanding more participation in economic competition a philosophy of servitude and tyranny of oppression was established: all over the world.

The negative socio-economic pressures on individuals accumulated in such conditions usually brought rebellions and revolutions therefore societies needed release valves: the nationalism, chauvinism, xenophobia, religious hatred have naturally been parts of such social negative built up releasing system which was promoted by government and negative social pressures were channeled into regional wars and constant insecurity.

The next and higher step in this social prevention system were the ideologies which were higher more sophisticated level of prejudice: in both systems of negative pressure releases any individuals not complying with the "acclaimed" ideas were persecuted and considered asocial and sometimes even enemy of the states: ideas for righteousness fitting some current criteria have been used and continued to being used for the same purposes even to promote belonging to causes and principles to suppress individual desire for success.

The theory of Scarce Resources has being based on a pro supply economics and competition it reflects the allowed by this conception limited percent of individuals access to fair competition which is accessible mostly for the upper classes who control big business and investment in now days. The Scarce Resources Economics including access to good education, to borrowing Capital, to market exchanges investing is pro Supply and the supply has been controlled by the big business and large investment groups and their strong lobbyists; the Governments have been part of this system by promoting their interests.

US is a perfect example how this conception works where good schools are quite expensive and the theory of income based education is dominant: which theory was probably good for a steady developing US economy and not so good for the rapidly developing global market which promotes different kind of competition by globalizing the labor market so the large corporation are looking elsewhere for qualified scientists and technicians, following on such demand large US Universities responded by creating graduate programs in science where high % PHD graduates are of foreign origin. Same conception prompted number of software specialists and medical doctors to come from India and elsewhere to fill the existing demand in US. So far Business Graduate Schools even opening some competition are lingering behind relying on the more conservative and seemingly less demanding business competition as still a steady place for the upper classes kids to be promoted but with the Europeans and Chinese's high accessibility for commoners to all strong undergraduate educational programs and the becoming extremely sophisticated Global business a demand for highly intellectual business managers will drive Business Schools toward similar to the science faculties global approaches of admittance and scholarships.

The philosophy of Scarce Resources doesn't reflect the demand for allowing more access to competition in order a society to keep up with the global development. Obviously US economy is based on Supply and Demand adjustments therefore finally the most advance individuals are to succeed but when the educational system limits lower classes from stimulating education the potentials of many capable individuals have not being enhanced properly will bring disadvantage to US economy as a whole. The theory of Capitalism is based on ideology not on reality and therefore it is bound to change or US will lose its Most Developed Country's superiority.

The ideological status quo for government to protect and promote big business and large investment by closing eyes of shady business and investment practices generally lower the security of the assets in US which hits on the diminishing value of the dollar and the gradual changing investment to more stable foreign markets of Europe and China where pro social distribution of wealth creates "stable" demand. Which systems by the way are not sufficient and flexible at all but on the principle of "the least evil" work better. Here it must be made clear that Philosophy of the Economy's Market Stability Economics is not based of socialization of Economics and Governmental redistribution of wealth but it is based on a heavily regulated business and investment structures and increase the equity of US infrastructures and social expenditures such as Medicare and Social Security which security will increase the value of the US economy overall and retain its status as a Most Developed Economy and Market.

Historically, the upper classes protection was normal because in a system of Scarce Resources the statuesque has had progressive effect on the economy by creating relative market stability. The problem with this system as with all systems of selective access to competition is the ongoing globalization where US market could not be considered anymore above others and untouchable. EU, India and China are entering this competition which used to be regional for US market making it a global competition. Big business and investors are moving their operations elsewhere and the process will accelerate.

To not loose competitiveness US economy must adapt under these new developments and capitalize of and promote the advances in communications and other spheres of technologies, of the US infrastructure, social services and Medicare, educational system in particular highly developed graduate schools and promote their expansion, the globalization of the very flexible US business and promote access to global markets for medium to small companies and investors; which actions will establish a more open competition for more individuals to participate and the strengths of the US free market competition will expand and be empowered.

The US educational system is one example of based on ideology system, but the US graduate studies universities are adapting into these new global competition and finally the flexibilities of the US interest driven education will prevail to maintain its high status by accepting more foreign students. The looser will finally be the lower and middle class Americans being isolated from the global competition.

What is really changing historically and could it be considered a new development?

Very simple:

  1. The pro supply trickle down or socialistic economics are changing in a pro market stability economics 
  2. The improving high technologies, the globally expanding business freedom, the access of capital medium to small businesses and investors will make business not anymore limited to a few conglomerates on the Global Marketplace: the medium to small companies because of the new technologies will be able to provide adequate products and services globally. 
  3. Manufacturing is no more driving force of the economy: Global Investing and Intellectual properties are becoming the driven forces;

Life as we know it is changing and the change will accelerate.

The most advance countries in this environment will be the one having the best developed system to establish the best conditions for these new developments to flourish.

EU has very well regulated economics but the nationalism, chauvinism and overextended governmental control over the business are stoppers existing from a previous CILOD and do not allow the flexibilities needed for Possible Development for this new CILOD. Still EU has better then the US regulated economics which reflects the devaluation of the US dollar to the euro.

China's economics is a mixture of free market and socialism, and is well based on the hard working population which had been isolated from the rest of the world for hundreds of years the Chinese have cultural differences from the rest which well work well in their current organization. The huge size of the population and the market attracts foreign investment and foreign corporation which allows the Chinese government to regulate the economics. Communists and socialists' economics are pro supply economics but the distribution of wealth is regulated by the governments which gives them a pro demand market abilities. Their problem was and always will be the limited flexibilities to act properly to adapt to the rapidly changing realities: when ideology plays regulative role and ideologies as usual are not market driven; also because they limit personal freedoms it affects the horizons of business expansion.

What is the Current International Level of Development and how the most feasible Economics could be determined?

This is a Million dollars question and the whole study of "Philosophy of the Economy" is to attempt answering it. One thing for sure in order this to be done an evaluation of historical processes of development shall be done which must justify and trace historical changes and their relativity if any.

Chapter II History of Development

When Karl Marx proclaimed the struggle between of the having and having not as a main force for development he was wrong it is a struggle but it is between the Individual Desire for Competition and Social Tools of Suppression and Limiting of Individuals' Access to such competition considered socially unacceptable at certain historical point. When John Lock proclaimed the market competition of a Supply to Demand based on a Scarce Resources Supply driven Philosophy he was wrong because even at the time his philosophy was adequately reflecting the driving free market economics he could not oversee the coming of a pro Market driven Demand to Supply balanced Economics. The scares resources is a historical justification of suppression of Individuals Desire to Compete: putting this statement from Social Relativity prospective such suppression had positive competitive effect for maintaining Social Stability at any historical moment until most recent global situation. So the Marx's upper Classes in historical prospective had positive effect on development by establishing needed for maintaining such development Social Stability. At the same time the market competition of John Lock was a revolution by itself coming from a feudalistic structured Europe into a pro market driven world where the market adjustments were based on economics not on Kings orders. Things were changing a new Current International Level of Development was arriving.

What is a Current International Level of Development CILOD and how it changes?

A probable historical period when under the circumstances particular individual skills were considered productive for a society or country thus the society or country's tolerated and promoted such individual competition to maintain internal stability and advance in the regional or international competition.

Usually changing CILOD are painful processes of changing classes' structure and redistribution of wealth thus wars, revolutions and social unrest have been a good indicator for changing CILOD. The approaching new CILOD is prompted by the new valued individual skills and knowledge needed under the new developments for a society or country to maintain internal stability and advance internationally;

Two things are of high importance at this time of change from one CILOD to another the Real Possibilities which reflect the socio-economic developments of a CILOD and also the Individuals Expectations which at time of change are getting higher: there is a relation between these two Relativities thus they usually closely follow one another: the expending Real Possibilities unlashes the constant Individual Desires for greater freedom of competition: the general direction of such competition is directed by the Real Possibilities and the current at the time possible spheres of competition: thus if we go back in history at feudal times the Individual Desires were much different from these in the 18 Century Empires of Europe and these from 20 Century Japan and even further different from the Post Wars Most Developed Countries;

The Philosophy of the Economy distinguishes and summarize these differences to show a very particular patterns in the world history which until now have been seen from other angles; by showing such changes it capitalizes of the constantly expanding role of the Individual Intellectual Abilities and the new historical role they are to play in the constantly changing new world.

From another side, if societies/countries do not adapt to the emerging new socio-economic accents they may loose competitiveness and even further disintegrate and become unstable.

Philosophy of the Economy is a philosophical conception of locating the historical CILOD and the related Individual /for individual countries/ Current Levels of Development and thus showing a different way of such evaluations from the used socio-economic philosophical conceptions up to date. This new way is progressively distinguishing itself from socio-economic ideologies, nationalism, racism or any products of the Scarce Resources Economics philosophies; it is founded on the most recent socio-economic changes in the Worlds Markets and establishes a new conception for sustained market development for the Most Developed Countries and Blocks and for any other countries and even individuals into the new Globalizing Market and World.

The history of the world is a history of changing priorities of the role of individuals in societies: the Individual Desire to Compete for socio economic success as a natural human reaction in life and Societies' from other side have established cultural and regulatory systems to keep this competition under acceptable limits.

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