History of the Peace Sign

The Peace Sign is universally recognized and accepted the world over for it iconic representation for a nonviolent solution as well as in protest of nuclear expansion and armament. Credit for creation of this sign is widely given to British physicist Gerald Holtom for support of nuclear disarmament in his native country. As with all things it was eventually brought west to the US and adopted by the Hippie movement and widely seen in protest of the Vietnam War. In the present modern society the icon continues to inspire a belief in a peaceful solution to ones differences.

The history of this beloved symbol goes further back in time and possess a far different meaning than the one we know today. The origins of the Peace Sign have been attributed as far back as the reign of the Roman Emperor Nero ( 54 to 68 AD ). The symbol was know as the cross of Nero it represents a cross with arms broken downward surrounded by a circle proclaiming Nero's vision of peace without Christians. The symbol is believed to be Nero's answer to suppress Christianity during his reign. This meaning is hotly contested depending on what side you take.

The Symbol is also seen an many alphabets of both ancient Norse and Germanic tribes the meaning is not always known from tribe to tribe. The symbol has however been attributed as the Teutonic rune of death I have done considerable research on this attribution and have not been able to verify is origins in any accepted scholarly works. Despite not finding correlating evidence this meaning is widely accepted among many Christians.

The Peace Sign made yet another appearance during the Second World War ( 1939 -1945 ) in both Nazi propaganda and on their uniforms. Most notably seen on the uniforms of the 3rd Panzer Division who operated in all European theaters. The icon is also seen in many German World War Two cemeteries both inscribed on headstones and as headstones. As with many symbols adopted by the Nazis such as the Swastika ( the original peace sign ) their meanings were changed and distorted if by nothing more than association.

Now we come to present day. The Peace Sign has different meanings to different people but it is universally accepted and used to promote a peaceful solution to difficult problems. The symbol is always seen at rallies and protest but its use is often overshadowed by the violence that often seems to occur. Its widely seen and used as hippie accessories and adorns all manner of items including clothing, purses, bumper stickers and about anything else you can think of. Knowing the history of the Peace Sign helps everyone understand and acknowledge that its meaning can be different from one group to another. Helping furthering a better understanding between peoples and fostering valuable conversation after all that's what its all about.

Of Scientific Inquiry and the Practice of Science

Scientific inquiry is necessary because it enables us to acquire knowledge and understanding about nature. Through scientific inquiry, we are able to discern order and patterns of behavior in nature, and we are able to create a mental picture of the world. It can be said that among the goals of scientific inquiry is to help us uncover the truth about the physical world. But such a revelation of the "truth" about nature is not perfect, nor shall it ever be perfect. The mental pictures produced by science are what Robert Bernstein and Donald McEachron call in their book, The American Biology Teacher, as "contingent truths"-truths that are contingent upon our limited knowledge of ourselves and the world around us. Of course there is always room for improvement. The more we improve our inquiry, the better our mental models will correspond with the real world.

There are several philosophical assumptions that underlie all scientific inquiries. It is said that there is regularity in nature that is expressed by laws and that the human mind can "know" these laws. Moreover, in the process of scientific progress, there is said to be the existence of a scientific paradigm, to which scientists subscribe and is an empirical and philosophical interpretation of the physical world. As was aforementioned, we have limited knowledge and as such, the paradigms we make are also not wholly perfect, though they may have been conceptualized by the cleverest scientists in history. Thus, anomalies or observations and discoveries that do not fit into the paradigms, things that should work but do not, may appear. New paradigms that explain these anomalies may very well replace the old ones.

Now how do these philosophical beliefs relate to our personal experience of beauty and order in nature? It may well be because of the fact that nature, for all its complexities, could still be explained by laws, and so ironically be simplified, that we may find it even more beautiful. Through science we, find an inherent order in nature that we could not have otherwise discovered if we did not try to study it, if we did not try to discover the laws and theories that seek to illuminate it, if we had not come up with the paradigms which are our closest representations of the real world.

Many scientists aspire for elegance in their theories for they deem elegance to be almost a form of proof of the theories in itself. Elegance can also be a good indication that a scientist is in a sure line of progress because with elegance, a scientist gains sound insight about his work. And with sound insight comes the desire of the scientist to grasp the "thing" right, for he believes that there really is an answer to his inquiry.

Scientific inquiry also demands stern ethical implications. Firstly, I've said that among the goals of scientific inquiry is to reveal the truth (or what is closest to truth) about the real world. If dishonesty underlies an inquiry, then such an inquiry undermines the idea of truth from the very beginning. Thus, dishonest acts subvert the very nature of a scientific inquiry. Barbara Ehrenreich, in the article Science, Lies and the Ultimate Truth (Time Magazine), says that there is a little-known spiritual side to science; through research, we seek to know the ultimate Other...the nameless Subject of so much that happens. This is our quest for truth. Utmost honesty then is perhaps the basic moral code that every science researcher must abide by. Even so, it is understandable that scientists make mistakes once in a while. That is why it is constructive that scientific findings be put under review by other members of the scientific community. If a researcher reports exactly how he did his work, then the integrity of his research can be protected, even though he may have committed honest errors, because he followed proper scientific protocols. Furthermore, peer review is necessary to uncover works of fraud and intentional ambiguities in argument presented by some dishonest scientists.

Science as a systematic way of knowing things, and being about the physical world, is empirical. Consequently, the scientific method involving observation and experimentation should be used to validate statements of an inquiry. Scientific method, is the "formulation and reformulation of hypothesis" in the sense that one should always carefully test them as well as the assumptions on which they rest for it may turn out that they may be wrong. It is not done as a pre-organized ritual, as was our wont in our early school years; rather, it should be a blend of logical and empirical methods. The former is when a thinker makes deductions from facts and the latter is when the thinker constructs a world and checks how this world fits the facts.

In the course of a scientific inquiry, laws and theories may be conceived. Laws give precise expression to observed regularities that occur in nature. They are essential for describing, explaining or predicting natural phenomena. Theories explain the laws and through them, we can deduce laws, otherwise the theory would not be useful. A theoretical explanation, being a simple, testable, and correctable explanation of observable phenomena, is more satisfactory than laws which are unproven and also unprovable. Laws are assumed to be valid as long as no natural violations of them can be found. It is also presumed that laws exist and have always existed.

At the end of the day, we find ourselves asking more questions about, and seeking greater understanding about nature. Scientific inquiry would not give us absolute and perfect answers about nature but it is indeed the best tool at our disposal.

Soccer Psychology - The Difference Between Winning and Losing

In today's game of soccer most would argue that the most important person in a team is the coach. But a new position has arisen from the depths of the grandstand and his importance has significantly increased. Can you guess who it is?

Big clubs all over the world are employing Sports psychologists for help and some have even put them on as full time staff. Sports psychology has become the next boom industry as clubs and coaches have discovered the power of soccer psychology.

The difference between winning and losing at the highest level can be separated by a thin white line. All players are extremely fit, skillful, strong and quick. But how many players are confident and mentally strong? Clubs have discovered this and have added psychology to their growing list of weapons.

Players these days have pushed their physical capabilities to the limit and the competitive edge has virtually flattened out. That's until mental warfare stepped in with the arrival of soccer psychology.

Science has proven that psychology and the right mindset influences and improves soccer performance. Sports psychology also identifies weaknesses and offers counseling to players who might be suffering from a lack of confidence and low self-esteem. They can also monitor motivational levels within a team and assess the whole team on an individual basis.

Soccer psychologists can also identify the different personalities within the team and ensure that these personalities don't clash and work together. Remember, a champion team will always beat a team of champions. Soccer psychologists make the transition from a team to a championship team look very simple. By correcting the mindset of the players and increasing the player's confidence the dream of winning silverware becomes a reality.

Soccer over the years has claimed its fair share of victims. Players that have lost all confidence and cannot perform at the levels required have inevitably been shown the door at their respective clubs. How can we stop this? Most players that have lost their confidence also suffer from low self esteem. With low self esteem comes the nerves and anxiety. If you have this problem within your team, the use of a soccer psychologist will solve all your problems. They will help your players relax and also use mental imagery to build on their shattered confidence without even touching a soccer ball.

Sports psychology has been directly linked to team spirit. The greater the team spirit, the greater chance you have of winning trophies. That's why we see the smaller clubs of Europe beating some of the heavy weights in the champion's league. Are the players better at the smaller clubs? Or do they have team spirit? From watching the champion's league, it's clearly evident what the smaller clubs lack in talent they make up in spirit and confidence.

The main purpose of psychology in soccer is to prevent the players feeling like failures when they lose. By eliminating this feeling, psychologists are protecting the players self esteem. Could self esteem and confidence be the secret ingredient all the big clubs share?

Discover a First-Rate Method of Overcoming Stress: Using the New Self-Help Cures!

Don't hesitate. Start enjoying your life again before it's too late!

Do you suffer from debilitating anxiety and stress? Millions of Americans do. Stress, panic and anxiety are toxic and tears on you, leaving you tired, depleted, and hopeless.

Over time, stress grows, like a cancer, causing you to feel futile, confused, tense and unhappy. You probably have trouble focusing and staying alert because stress can make it tough to concentrate.

Relieving stress is an urgent need if you want to live a happier, more relaxed life. Recovering from stress can help you achieve more, prevent illness and enjoy life more fully.

Red Flags: Do you feel sluggish or do you feel focused and alert in the mornings? Do you enjoy waking up or would you rather continue sleeping as long as possible?

Until recently, the only treatment options for those feeling stressed out have been counseling, psychotherapy or medication. Some people suggest lifestyle modifications, including exercise, breathing exercises, or special diets.

Unfortunately, some of these require a burdensome investment of time and effort. Others obligate you to spill your guts to a stranger, while others are very expensive and others expose you to the possibility of dangerous side-effects. That's why the development of cognitive behavioral therapy is all the more amazing.

A variety of mood-enhancing psychological tools currently exist, but none has proven more impressive then the new technique called cognitive-behavioral therapy or CBT. It is the one technique that is recommended by researchers and insurance companies alike because of its remarkable effectiveness.

Research has demonstrated dramatic results in reducing anxiety.
CBT works by combining the most effective mood-enhancing interventions available with several new state-of-the-art techniques that have demonstrated impressive results in clinical studies.

CBT provides much-needed improvements in your thinking and in your ability to accurately evaluate troubling issues. When this unfolds, you will start to view issues calmly, accurately and in perspective, rather than in an extreme, panicky or catastrophic way.

This dramatically reduces the effects of your stress, and helps to regulate your sleep and appetite in a healthy direction.
Using Self-Therapy Kits, or STKs, CBT is delivered to you, using a first-rate self-help format.

CBTs proven interventions are delivered in a self-contained multimedia format which may include any or all of the following: DVDs, MP3s, e-books, workbooks, videos etc. They are self-paced, inexpensive and can be used anytime in the privacy and comfort of your own home.

There are no strangers to spill your guts to and no exposure to the dangerous side-effects of medication. It takes only a few days for STKs to begin working and the results can be dramatic.

STKs provide psychological education and use guided imagery, behavioral exercises and methods to accurately monitor your progress in order to reduce the impact of your stress. These are educational materials and, therefore, there are no side-effects, prescriptions or doctor visits with which to contend.

What if you are already in some form of counseling?

If you're already in counseling, using them simultaneously could shorten the time required for your symptoms to be eliminated. Using an STK while engaging in treatment may boost both the speed and quality of your recovery.

How do you find these inexpensive self-therapy kits?

Just go to the internet and search; be sure to study the brochures carefully. The benefits of STKs are wide-ranging and include improved focus, alertness, and an enthused and positive mood.

Rather than feeling drowsy or spaced, your stress and anxiety is replaced with an optimistic, energized and positive outlook.

Some of the benefits of STKs include:

-Dramatically relieves stress and anxiety

-Deepens relaxation and deeply calms your mood

-Energizes your focus and alertness

-Promotes a long-lasting positive mood and outlook on life

STKs are remarkable therapeutic and educational tools that transform your thinking patterns into an uplifting and positive trajectory. There are no unwanted side effects and unlike other therapies, they are inexpensive, convenient and easy to use.

The Politics of Solar Energy

The temperature of the planet is rising exponentially, and the financial, social and environmental costs of fossil fuels are becoming increasingly apparent. Meanwhile, the fact is that on a clear day, the sun rains down the equivalent of one thousand watts (that's a megawatt, folks) of free energy on every square yard of the planet's surface.

It therefore seems insane that energy policy that could mean clean, cheap solar power for everyone and good jobs for American workers is being held hostage by the interests of a few incredibly wealthy and powerful interests. Sadly, this is exactly what is happening, and it seems clear that if the Republican Party takes back Congress in November America's oil addiction will continue at the expense of the public, the environment and global well-being.

It's worth noting that China and Germany are currently leaving the USA in the dust where solar energy and other renewables are concerned, thanks to thirty years of misguided and mishandled economic policies in Washington.

Carter Had It Right

Flawed man that he was, former President Jimmy Carter had it right when he finally came out and said, "The energy crisis is real...it is a clear and present danger to our nation." In that historic speech, delivered in July of 1979, he laid out an ambitious program that, had it been followed, would have insured that the United States would never again "use more foreign oil than we did in 1977." One of the goals was to cut U.S. dependence on imported oil by 50% by 1990.

To show the country and the world he was putting his money where his mouth was, Carter installed solar panels on the roof of the White House.

Traitors in Our Midst

Unfortunately, Carter did not win reelection in 1980. Instead, political deals were made by the opposition party, and Ronald Reagan, the best friend Big Oil ever had, was elected. His first act was to remove the solar panels from the White House and cancel Carter's energy program. The rest is tragic history, and today the situation is as dire as ever.

The Answer

Solar cell efficiency needs to make further progress before it can fully replace fossil fuels, but great strides have been made in recent years. Within the next five years, this efficiency will begin to approach 100%, and we can begin restoring the nation's self-sufficiency and healing the environment while returning the prosperity we once enjoyed.

The Undeclared War Against Wikileaks

The U.S. government appears to be waging an undeclared war against Wikileaks and its founder, Julian Assange, while media and other business interests either cheer the effort on or run for cover.

This clash is setting some precedents that we may all live to regret.

The government is infuriated at Wikileaks' release of about a quarter-million secret messages purloined from the State Department, following earlier disclosures of military material from Iraq and Afghanistan. Some of the leaks, particularly from the war zones, clearly jeopardized individuals' personal safety or American security interests. Most of the recent disclosures, however, merely confirm and add detail to things we already knew. We did not need Wikileaks to tell us that the Arab states in the Persian Gulf were alarmed at the prospect of Iran obtaining nuclear weapons.

Still, the officials responsible for safeguarding American secrets find it outrageous that a self-appointed defender of the public's right to know has usurped their power to decide what information should be released. Nobody in public office likes to have his or her authority challenged.

But this is not merely about protecting official privilege. Assange probably would not lose any sleep if one of his disclosures got an American intelligence source fired or killed. He is not responsible for stopping weapons proliferation or terrorist attacks, and his conscience may not be affected if a lot of people die after such efforts fail. From the viewpoint of officialdom, what Wikileaks is doing actually is outrageous.

At moments like this, when emotions run high, we do well to remember that there are also other principles and other points of view. The Wall Street Journal's editorial page lost sight of this when it essentially called for Assange to be assassinated.(1)

"If he were exposing Chinese or Russian secrets, he would already have died at the hands of some unknown assailant," the newspaper wrote. "As a foreigner (Australian citizen) engaged in hostile acts against the U.S., Mr. Assange is certainly not protected from U.S. reprisal under the laws of war."

The Journal lost an excellent, dedicated journalist named Daniel Pearl when he was beheaded in 2002 after trying to interview jihadist leaders in Pakistan. Julian Assange is no Daniel Pearl, but he, too, exposes himself to powerful and hostile interests to bring information to the public. So did most of the 39 journalists that a compilation by the Committee to Protect Journalists lists as killed this year.

The Wall Street Journal, more than any other entity I can think of, ought to abhor extra-judicial killings of people who disseminate information, no matter what title appears on their business cards.

Meanwhile, Wikileaks' technical and financial infrastructure has been under relentless attack, since just before it released the first batch of State Department documents on the night of Nov. 28.

The organization's Swedish servers were targeted in a "distributed denial of service" attack, typically used by hackers or extortionists who command legions of hijacked "zombie" computers to overwhelm a targeted website. Wikileaks, however, is not a typical commercial target; the attack made sense only for political reasons. Similar assaults have been mounted by Russian operatives against former Soviet satellites that ran afoul of the Kremlin.

In this case, the party with the obvious motive is Uncle Sam. But, so far, no American or allied fingerprints have been found. It is also conceivable that another government that wanted to avoid inconvenient disclosures might have staged the attack.

Nevertheless, Wikileaks was forced to migrate its servers to a more robust platform offered by Amazon.com. That only lasted a few days, however, before Amazon buckled to political pressure in the form of congressional inquiries, notably from Sen. Joseph Lieberman, D-Conn. Amazon's decision "should set the standard for other companies Wikileaks is using to distribute its illegally seized material," Lieberman said in a statement.(2)

Suppose someone assembles the State Department documents in book form. Should Amazon, or other vendors, be pressured or prohibited from selling the book if the U.S. government argues that the material was "illegally seized?" The First Amendment would prevent the government from outlawing the book, but Amazon's reaction shows that pressure may suffice to get results that the law itself cannot produce.

Days after Amazon evicted Wikileaks from its physical home, the organization lost its cyberspace address when another U.S. firm canceled the Wikileaks.org domain name. That firm, Everydns, also came under pressure from Lieberman. Wikileaks became temporarily inaccessible until it secured a Swiss address, Wikileaks.ch.

There have also been concerted efforts to cut off the Wikileaks money supply. PayPal became the third U.S. company to run from the organization when it suspended Wikileaks' account. The company said in a blog post that Wikileaks violated a PayPal policy that prohibits use of the money-transfer service to "encourage, promote, facilitate or instruct others to engage in illegal activity." Mastercad and Visa followed suit by cutting off processing for Wikileaks.

Wikileaks has not been found to have broken any law. Of course, the person who leaked the documents - suspected to be U.S. Army Pfc. Bradley Manning - may have done so, but if Wikileaks is responsible for its sources' disclosures, then so is any news organization. Would PayPal, Mastercard or Visa cut off The New York Times for reporting on leaked secrets?

Not this time. But we have been down this road before, and in other situations, the traditional press has had the role that Wikileaks is playing today.

"Quit making national heroes out of those who steal secrets and publish them in the newspaper," President Richard Nixon said at the height of the Pentagon Papers controversy. His administration went to court to block The New York Times from publishing the secret Vietnam history leaked by Daniel Ellsberg. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger called Ellsberg "the most dangerous man in America," which became the title of a documentary about the case last year. After warning The Washington Post's management that there would be financial repercussions for joining The Times in publishing the papers, the Nixon administration orchestrated a challenge to the Post's licenses for five television stations. (The challenge ultimately failed.)

The Obama administration is likewise rattling every saber it can get its hands on, for reasons that are not entirely clear. The Wikileaks documents have been disseminated electronically to every corner of the globe. What sense is there in warning Columbia University students not to link to the documents or comment on them, for fear of not getting hired by the State Department after college? Or instructing federal workers and contractors not to read the Wikileaks documents online, because they are still classified? The Pentagon Papers, which are available in their entirety, are still classified, also. Are government workers who read the history of the Vietnam War also subject to punishment?

Still, Attorney General Eric Holder regularly intones that the publication of the Wikileaks papers was illegal, though he cites no particular law on the subject. There has been some speculation that Wikileaks could be prosecuted for possessing stolen government documents. If Wikileaks can be prosecuted on those grounds, so could everyone involved in publishing the material Ellsberg leaked.

Assange himself is likewise the target of an apparently coordinated campaign to bring him to heel. Assange was arrested and held without bail in the United Kingdom on a Swedish warrant that, according to Assange's attorneys, relates to sexual relations Assange had with two women who purportedly asked him to stop when his condoms failed. While Assange may need to get better at his bedroom skills, it is fair to ask whether these alleged sexual assaults would get international attention if Assange had not made so many enemies in high places.

A useful principle could come out of all this. If I make something a secret, it is my responsibility to keep it secret. I don't get to tell it to hundreds of thousands of people, including low-level Army personnel who have no need to know any of this, and still make it a crime when the secrets get out - and especially not a crime for which people that merely learn the secrets, rather than actively take them, can be held responsible.

This is the approach that makes journalism possible. Anything else reduces the press to a mere conduit for government statements. This would suit many government officials, but would not suit any society that calls itself democratic and self-governing.

The war against Wikileaks is a war against the press. The press just hasn't realized it yet.

Information to Help You Choose the Right Online MBA Program

No matter what field you have chosen your career in or what your educational background is, getting an MBA degree is extremely beneficial to your professional future. MBA degrees can be obtained by attending a college or university that is accredited by the Department of Education to conduct MBA courses. But if you don't have the required finances or if you feel that you will be unable to balance a full time job as well as your study courses then a viable option is distance learning in the form of Online MBA programs. There are a number of online MBA programs that have been accredited by the Department of Education. They have proved to be just as good as far as quality of the courses go. And most importantly they are recognized courses so you will not be discriminated against when you apply for a job.

Aspirant students are skeptical about these online courses because it is difficult to ascertain the authenticity of these courses. This is a very good question to be asking if you are choosing an online course. If the program is not accredited then there are a few very dire consequences. One of them is that if you decide to change schools then the credits, you have meticulously acquired during the term you were part of course that was not accredited, will not be transferred. All your time, money and resources will be wasted. Another sever consequence is if you graduate from that a course that is not accredited then degree you obtain will not be of any use. Also it will reflect poorly on you and result in a loss of professional credibility which will be very hard to regain. It will also cost you your future prospects. There are few steps you can take to safeguard against this and guarantee that you have picked the right program.

When viewing the site of the educational organization you choose, check whether the site mentions their professional membership with an accrediting agency. Then cross check this membership on the site of that particular agency. What you must do is visit the site of the mentioned accrediting agency and see if the name of your chosen organization appears on their list of members. If the organization is registered with the agency its name will definitely be on the list. The next thing to check is the authenticity of the agency itself. This can be done by visiting the Department of Education database of Post Secondary Educational Institutions. Also you should check up the site of CHEA - Council of Higher Educational Accreditation. This organization examines all the accrediting agencies. The last thing to do is to research the faculty of your chosen organization. Sift through their resumes and credentials. Make sure that the faculty has the required qualifications and educational background to be teaching the courses you have chosen.

It may be a long and tedious process but in the event that you choose to invest your time and money in an institution its best to be assured that you are getting the best possible MBA course.

Seven Developing Nations Vital to the World Economy

Sometimes we become preoccupied with the major nations involved in our global economy, rather than look beyond China, Russia and the United States. There are currently eight nations which are vital to the continuation of our own economies.

Who are these Seven developing countries?

1. Bolivia

This tiny impoverished South American nation is potentially the worlds largest supplier of lithinun, a resource used for car and solar batteries. High up in the Andes, huge deposits of this vital mineral have been discovered.


As well as being the Worlds largest gold producers, Indonesia is the "Raja of coconuts", exporting 20 million tones of coconut products alone in 2010.

Both emerging and developed nations depend on coconut oil for cooking and for ingredients, without Indonesia's huge production of the humble coconut, many of the produce you find in your supermarket shelves would simply disappear.

3. Ivory Coast

The enigmatic King of chocolate, despite the fact most cocoa farmers rarely escape poverty, the world needs this vital ingredient to produce the billions of chocolate related products we consume everyday.

4. Kazakhstan

Since the promised green energy revolution never materialized, many developed nations like the United States, France, Germany and the UK have opted for the short term option of nuclear energy.

This is bringing a windfall for impoverished Kazakhstan which has the largest deposits of uranium on our planet. Supplying these resource poor countries is becoming big business, and is starting a global movement of interest into this region.

5. Malaysia

Malaysia just tops Indonesia as the worlds largest producer of palm oil, a vital ingredient in produce from cooking oil to washing powder.

Engines can actually run on palm oil, as we also look for alternative sources which need to replace our over dependency on oil. Both Malaysia and Indonesia export the bulk of this essential resource throughout the world.

6. South Africa

A nation previously known for its vast resources in diamonds and gold, in the next decade of the 21st century, South Africa is getting to be known for its vast resources in platinum. Platinum is used for building engines, the same engines that run our cars, and trucks. One reason many global automakers relocate their car production to South Africa, including Mercedes Benz.

7. Thailand

One of the worlds largest producers of natural rubber, a resource needed to produce anything from condoms to tires. Resource poor countries which produce millions of vehicles a year, exported over half their rubber from Thailand in 2010.

Resource poor countries are usually developed nations. These nations were at the forefront of the global economy, but recently face new challenges as emerging countries like China have proved that the producers of these resources, can also match and better the traditional manufacturing nations which are dependent on importing these key resources.

The next decade of the 21st century could become an era of development for these producer countries, whilst those needing these vital resources may compete for their control.

What Causes Gold Price Inflation

Most of the people look at the price of gold per troy ounce in a similar way they consider the stock market. It is very difficult to determine what causes the fluctuations by just looking at the investment vehicles. The gold prices is related to few core factors in reality. These factors can be complex system that can be very confusing even though they look simple on the surface. Here we discuss various factors that cause gold price inflation. The gold and prices also fluctuates due to many reasons like currency inflation, dynamics which causes increase in demand and the role of central banks. By knowing these factors you can gain knowledge of when it is appropriate to sell your gold jewelry.

Currency inflation is also one of the major causes for the fluctuations in gold prices. Inflation occurs when there is increase in the price of goods. For example, when a consumer finds out the prices of the commodities have increased after visiting a grocery shop then we say it is inflation. But actually speaking inflation is increase in money supply. This is how the gold rates move high along with the countries currency and results in gold price inflation. As gold cannot be arbitrarily produced, it is used as an exchange unit of value. As the currency declines per unit value then the gold rate increases.

Central banks also play an important role in gold price inflation. The banks make agreement with other central banks through loans and hence influence the price of gold. They can also get involved in selling and buying more on market which influence gold prices. There are several other factors that cause increase in demand. Political unrest and war are the major ones. Because of this people buy more gold as they lose faith in the value of the currency. The best time to sell gold is when the prices are at peaks.

Low Cost Effective Direct Marketing Soulutions

Printed media, such as envelopes, bookmarks, business cards, postcards, letterhead, door hangers, magnets and labels, distributed via mail, hand or, passively via display, have long been recognized as cost effective marketing tools with clearly defined and documented expectations for return on investment. The secret to increasing the effectiveness of these kinds of tools is in making them unique and appealing enough to capture the attention, even for a moment, of the jaded recipient who has no interest in even picking up a printed piece.

Javier Zabala, Vice President for Marketing at Prints4.me has enjoyed a varied career that has prepared him for a discussion of the most effective use of postcards, bookmarks, magnets, door hangers, envelopes, business cards, letterhead and labels. As a former director of marketing for a multinational company, he is acutely aware, for instance, of the importance of business cards in the various cultures found the world over. The successful ritualistic exchange of business cards or meishi in Japanese business interactions is absolutely critical. As a world traveler, Javier has observed the use of picture postcards to share personalized greetings and market everything from services to vacation venues and fine art. Javier has observed increasing use of magnets is the US market, with everything from business card sized refrigerator magnets to door panel sized magnets on private vehicles that are used for small business promotion. Javier's personally directed the development of the corporate brand, including logo and its placement on its letterhead and envelopes. Particularly effective was the use of color on letterhead and envelopes used expressly for marketing mailings. It was found by customers that different colored envelopes and letterhead garnered more attention in the inbox than those that were plain white. More frequently, marketers such as Javier are using strategically placed alternative solutions, such as heavily branded bookmarks and labels in their marketing arsenal. IT services in particular, have found the use of labels and bookmarks for keeping their hi tech customers aware of the brand on equipment and in user and technical manuals, respectively. Javier has personally directed the distribution of door hangers in hotel and convention venues as a unique way to remind individual attendees of important events and presentations sponsored by his companies.

In conclusion, it has been found that well branded and designed letterhead, envelopes, business cards and postcards continue to be very cost effective marketing tools that continue to have a place in aggressive, well balanced marketing campaigns. It is also found that use of magnets, labels, bookmarks and door hangers also have a place when used in creative ways that differentiate ones brand. 

Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677)


Baruch Spinoza was born to Portuguese Jews living in exile in Holland, but his life among the Marranos there was often unsettled. Despite an early rabbinical education, he was expelled from the synagogue at Amsterdam for defending heretical opinions in 1656. While engaging privately in serious study of medieval Jewish thought, Cartesian philosophy, and the new science at Rijnburg and the Hague, Spinoza supported himself by grinding optical lenses, an occupation that probably contributed to the consumption that killed him. Private circulation of his philosophical treatises soon earned him a significant reputation throughout Europe, but Spinoza so treasured his intellectual independence that in 1673 he declined the opportunity to teach at Heidelberg, preferring to continue his endeavors alone.

    Spinoza's first published work was a systematic presentation of the philosophy of Descartes, to which he added his own suggestions for its improvement. The Principles of Descartes's Philosophy (1663) contain many of the characteristic elements of his later work, but Spinoza seems to have realized that a full exposition of his own philosophical views would require many years of devoted reflection. In the meantime, he turned his attention briefly to other issues of personal and social importance. The Tractatus Theologico-Politicus (A Theologico-Political Treatise) (1670) is an examination of superficial popular religion and a vigorous critique of the miltant Protestantism practiced by Holland's ruling House of Orange. Spinoza disavowed anthropomorphic conceptions of god as both logically and theologically unsound, proposed modern historical-critical methods for biblical interpretation, and defended political toleration of alternative religious practices. Christians and Jews, he argued, could live peaceably together provided that they rose above the petty theological and cultural controversies that divided them.

Although he published nothing else during his lifetime, metaphysical speculations continued to dominate Spinoza's philosophical reflections, and he struggled to find an appropriate way to present his rationalistic conviction that the universe is a unitary whole. Bust of Spinoza Respect for deductive reasoning and for the precision of the Latin language led Spinoza to express his philosophy in a geometrical form patterned on that empolyed in Euclid's Elements. Thus, each of the five books of Spinoza's Ethica Ordine Geometrico Demonstrata (Ethics) (1677) comprises a sequence of significant propositions, each of which is deduced from those that have come before, leading back to a small set of self-evident definitions and axioms.

In Book I Spinoza claimed to demonstrate both the necessary existence and the unitary nature of the unique, single substance that comprises all of reality. Spinoza preferred the designation "Deus sive Natura" ("god or nature") as the most fitting name for this being, and he argued that the its infinite attributes account for every feature of the universe. Book II describes the absolute necessity with which the two attributes best known to us, thought and extension, unfold in the parallel structure that we, with our dual natures, comprehend as the ideas and things with which we are acquainted in ordinary life. This account also provides for the possibility of genuine human knowledge, which must be based ultimately on the coordination of these diverse realms. Spinoza's Tractatus de Intellectus Emendatione (On the Improvement of the Understanding) (1677) provides additional guidance on the epistemological consequences of his metaphysical convictions. Here Spinoza proposed a "practical" method for achieving the best knowledge of which human thinkers are capable.

Spinoza applied similar principles to human desires and agency in Books III-V of the Ethics, recommending a way of life that acknowledges and appropriates the fundamental consequences of our position in the world as mere modes of the one true being. It would be moral bondage if we were motivated only by causes of which we remain unaware, Spinoza held, so genuine freedom comes only with knowledge of what it is that necessitates our actions. Recognizing the invariable influence of desire over our passionate natures, we then strive for the peace of mind that comes through an impartial attachment to reason. Although such an attitude is not easy to maintain, Spinoza concluded that "All noble things are as difficult as they are rare."

Medieval Philosophy

Having devoted extensive attention to the development of philosophy among the ancient Greeks, we'll now cover more than a millenium of Western thought more briefly. The very name "medieval" (literally, "the in-between time") philosophy suggests the tendency of modern thinkers to skip rather directly from Aristotle to the Renaissance. What seemed to justify that attitude was the tendency of philosophers during this period to seek orthodoxy as well as truth.

Nearly all of the medieval thinkers—Jewish, Christian, and Muslim—were pre-occupied with some version of the attempt to synthesis philosophy with religion. Early on, the neoplatonism philosophy of Plotinus seemed to provide the most convenient intellectual support for religious doctrine. But later in the medieval era, thanks especially to the work of the Arabic-language thinkers, Aristotle's metaphysics gained a wider acceptance. In every case, the goal was to provide a respectable philosophical foundation for theological positions. Augustine: Christian Platonism

The first truly great medieval philosopher was Augustine of Hippo, a North African rhetorician and devotee of Manichaeanism who converted to Christianity under the influence of Ambrose and devoted his career to the exposition of a philosophical system that employed neoplatonic elements in support of Christian orthodoxy. The keynote of Augustine's method is "Credo ut intellegiam" ("I believe in order that I may understand"), the notion that human reason in general and philosophy in particular are useful only to those who already have faith.

Thus, for example, Augustine simply rejected the epistemological criticisms mounted by the Academic skeptics. Even if it were true that I am mistaken about nearly everything that I suppose to be true, he argued, one inescapable truth will remain: "Si fallor, sum" ("If I am mistaken, I exist"). [This doctrine is an interesting anticipation of Descartes's later attempt to establish knowledge on the phrase "Cogito ergo sum".] Upon this foundation, Augustine believed it possible to employ human faculties of sense and reason effectively in the pursuit of substantive knowledge of the world.

Human Life

Although Augustine was significantly influenced by the moral philosophy of Cicero, he generally argued that the Stoics were excessively optimistic in their assessment of human nature. One of Augustine's central contributions to the development of Christian theology was his heavy emphasis on the reality of human evil. If, as Augustine certainly believed, the world and everything in it is the creation of a perfectly good god, then how can the human beings who constitute so prominent a part of that creation be inherently evil? Like Plato and Plotinus, but unlike the Manichaeans, Augustine now argued that evil is not anything real, but rather is merely the absence of good. Augustine held that the classical attempts to achieve virtue by discipline, training, and reason are all boud to fail. Thus, the redemptive action of god's grace alone offers hope. Again using his own life as an example, Augustine maintained that we can do nothing but wait for god to work with us in the production of a worthwhile life. (Our happiness never enters into the picture.)

God's Existence

That there is indeed a god, Augustine proved in fine Platonic fashion: Begin with the fact that we are capable of achieving mathematical knowledge, and remember that, as Plato demonstrated, this awareness transcends the sensory realm of appearances entirely. Our knowledge of eternal mathematical truths thus establishes the immateriality and immortality of our own rational souls. (So far, the argument is straight out of Plato's Phaedo.)

Augustine further argued that the eternal existence of numbers and of the mathematical relations that obtain among them requires some additional metaphysical support. We can still balance our checkbooks with confidence because, of course, god invariably wills eternally. But in principle, Augustine held that even necessary truths are actually contingent upon the exercise of the divine will.

Human Freedom

This emphasis on the infinite power of god's will raises a significant question about our own capacity to will and to act freely. If, as Augustine supposed, god has infinite power and knowledge of every sort, then god can cause me to act in particular ways simply by willing that I do so, and in every case god knows in advance in what way I will act, long before I even contemplate doing so. Augustine's answer to this predicament lies in his analysis of time. A god who is eternal must stand wholly outside the realm of time as we know it, and since god is infinitely more real than we are, it follows that time itself does not exist at the level of the infinitely real. The passage of time, the directionality of knowledge, and all temporal relations are therefore nothing more than features of our limited minds. And it is within these limitations, Augustine supposed, that we feel free, act on our volitions, and are responsible for what we do. God's foreknowledge, grounded outside the temporal order, has no bearing on the temporal nature of our moral responsibility. Once again, a true understanding of the divine plan behind creation resolves every apparent conflict.


Child Labor Issues a World Wide Problem and Challenge We Must Conquer

Using children as slave labor is a real problem in the world, and it's been going on in many human societies and cultures for far too long. Yes, in ancient times everyone had to pitch in, but now those who run businesses are collecting these kids and making them work 14-20 plus hours per day. This of course is unacceptable in Western culture, but it still goes on in very poor and emerging nations all over the globe.

Not long ago, an individual who grew up in Pakistan and I were discussing online the challenges of child labor abuse worldwide. I agreed and said that the child labor issues are problematic all over the world, it's just been going on for generations now, it's a real challenge; "what do you suggest there?" I asked. This individual is living and working in Dubai now, but he noted that there were problems back in Pakistan with child labor abuses.

He offered a relevant suggestion and stated; "On Child Labor issues, Yes you are right it is a real challenge. I've a suggestion that may improve specially in Asia and Africa. If the government or the outside donors agencies work collectively and come up with some educational plan for their families make the education free for them and announce a monthly cash awards for the parents who educate and send their children to schools regardless of the sect."

Indeed, that would work alright and in Africa, yes the problems are huge, and such a solution might prevent the kids from joining those bands of guerilla militia with machine guns too. Humans around the planet need to agree to a least a minimum of rules and human rights. This would be a very good place to start.

Sins of Omission: Immoral Evil and Human Permissiveness

A controversial and extremely provocative issue regarding human behavior, which has perplexed philosophers and pundits since the dawn of recorded history, and which is still polemically bandied about in the 21st Century, consists of whether ignoring and/or silently tolerating an existing evil is tantamount to a willing acceptance of it. For instance, if neighbors of a single-parent family fully realize that the father in the family is physically and sexually molesting his two preadolescent daughters, and do nothing at all to intervene, or to let law enforcement know about the situation, are they, in some way, responsible for the continuing criminal molestation? Some will say yes, and some, of course, will say no. Yet, I have come to believe that all normal human beings, who ignore and knowingly tolerate acts of others that are heinous and reprehensibly evil, will ultimately suffer pained and guilt-ridden consciences throughout their lives when they realize exactly what they have done, even if they are not formally censured by societal law. This self-indicting realization might take a little while to occur, but it will eventually come about; for evil has always had a profound way of subtly nosing its way into a society by, seemingly, innocuous incremental degrees, which, to most human beings, constitute normal evolving shades of fashion.

By analogy, just consider the prevailing attitude of the majority of Protestant and Catholic Germans toward the German Jewish community prior to 1918. At that time, all of the German people, regardless of ethnicity or religion had been enlisted for four long years in a common war-effort to defeat the Allied powers. Consequently, there existed an amicable tolerance by the non-Jews for German Jewry. Everyone was, then, working together for a common cause. So, how did this mutual toleration deteriorate 25 years after the German defeat, when the Treaty of Versailles essentially forced the creation of the Weimar Republic? Did the German Protestant and Catholic citizens just suddenly start hating the Jews in the mid-and-late-1930s? No, the hatred was slowly and incrementally inculcated into German society by a small minority of politically devious anti-Semites who called themselves Nazis. It took Adolf Hitler, his group of henchmen, and his Nazi anti-Semitic propaganda approximately 11 years to permeate and pervert the common attitude of German society toward Jewry, in order to change 95-percent of the freedom-loving German people into anti-Semites, actually believing that Jewish men, women, and children were sub-human and totally responsible for Germany's economic plight. One insightful view of this tragic mis-assignment of blame, which led directly to the Holocaust, was that, somehow, the German people lost, over that short period of time, their collective empathy for human suffering. When General Dwight D. Eisenhower discovered the Nazi death camps, in 1945, and heard from German citizens in the surrounding communities that they knew nothing about the mass exterminations of Jewish men, women, and children, he forced quite-a-few of them to walk through the death camps in order to witness, first-hand, the atrocities that had occurred. As a result of facing such horrible truth, quite a few of those German citizens couldn't live with themselves, and committed suicide when they realized the sad result of their collective toleration.

Of course, the particular aforementioned type of politically perpetuated evil was, and remains, exceptionally vile, but immoral evil can take many other forms that, at first glance, may appear relatively benign and harmless, while, over time, permutating into malignantly ravenous beasts. Again, by way of illustration, take the issue of human sexuality and mode of dress by men and women in American society from 1945 until the present day. Before the Second World War, the human body was commonly regarded by most American men and women as sacredly private in nature, and you only saw women dressed immodestly in the movies, in certain risque magazines, or in burlesque entertainment parlors. Modesty was clearly distinguished from immodesty, during the late 1940s and early 50s, in distinctly measurable terms, such as skirt-length, the cut of the female blouse, the amount of female breast cleavage showing, and the amount of body surface disclosed by swimsuits. Most men and woman during that time considered being seen in anything comparable to underwear as considerably taboo; and except for movies, and certain magazines, such as Hugh Heffner's "Playboy (the actual beginning of commercial pornography in the United States), the majority of Americans practiced prudent modesty in their personal lives. Believe it or not, less than 17-percent of the U.S. population, in 1954, regularly read such magazines as "Playboy." Such long-term moral standards were inexorably changed, slowly and incrementally, through the efforts small, but vociferous, minorities of the American population that began exhibiting what were, at first, regarded as aberrant behaviors. Skirt-length slowly rose from an inch below the knees to several-inches above, the female breasts slowly, but ultimately, became symbols of male eroticism and female liberation, and, in the late-1950s and early 60s, the bikini essentially replaced the one-piece swimsuit. It took only 14 years for an abandonment of limitations upon observable cleavage in female dress, and the frequently intentional display of panties and pantyhose (split skirts), which became widely vogue in fashion. Then came U.S. Supreme Court Potter Stuart, who, grinningly sporting the "Playboy," Penthouse," and "Hustler," magazines normally hid in his desk, laconically quipped the infamous words, "I may not be able to define pornography, but I know it when I see it." Consequently, from 1970 until the present-day, there have essentially been no limits placed on human sexuality and female/male dress. Watch a Victoria's Secret commercial if you don't get what I mean. For it seems today, in the 21st Century world, that a very large number of American women can shamelessly strut-their-stuff in public, wearing sensuous highly revealing undergarments and be loudly, and continuously, applauded by an extremely large audience of erotically stimulated men. These same women can also parade around, almost nude, on the public beaches wearing much-less-of-a swimsuit than the most revealing bedroom laungerie, and they can do it with impunity.

So, was this late-20th Century permutation of modesty and simple decency a new morality, extending beyond the concepts of good and evil, or the old evil immorality disguised as something much more appealing to human lust and vice? Let's see. From 1950 until 1960, the number of rapes and criminal assaults of women in the United States increased 65-percent, as compared to a 9-percent increase from 1940 until 1950. From 1960 until 1970, the number of sexually-oriented assaults against women, and men, increased another 9-percent. From 1970 until 1980, rapes, assaults, and sexually-oriented homocides increased 45-percent of what they were in the previous decade. Also, during the 1970s, child pornography (commonly known as chick-porn) became rife within the U.S., leading to the creation of special FBI, and police, task forces to handle the onerous perversions that became common across state lines. During the 1970s, homosexuality became politically defined as a functional lifestyle, and heterosexual men and woman disturbed by homosexual acts were formally classified as dysfunctional homophobes; but criminal homosexual assaults on, both, males and females increased 40-percent from 1970 until 1980, as sado-masochism and sodomy were declared by the courts as viable tools for recreational sex. With the advent of the Internet, cell phones, and quick electronic communication, there has been an inexorable rise, since 1990, in the number of sexual predators around the country, lurking in the shadows, seeking their young and tender prey. Many of these convicted violent sex offenders and molesters are living in urban, and suburban, communities throughout the nation. What's really scary is that there are, perhaps, hundreds, if not thousands, of these deviant human beings, presently unknown to law enforcement, who are biding their time, entertaining themselves with Internet and magazine pornography, waiting anxiously for their unwitting prey to fall into their grasps.

I sincerely believe that this continual prolific rise in sexually-oriented crimes has been directly due to the inexorable demise of moral standards over the ensuing decades, and the glorification of such crimes on television, motion pictures, and entertainment magazines. Even if the sexual predator is depicted as arrested, tried, and sentenced on such shows as "Law and Order" and "CSI," many disturbed minds (and there are currently over a million of them in the U.S.) will look be attracted to the deviant acts depicted in drama, and the attention they graphically bring to the offender. R and X-rated movies depict pictures and themes that embellish and glorify the commission of deviant and sexually-violent acts in the minds of mentally aberrant human beings. How many violent rapes by deviant men have, perhaps, been committed against innocent women after having watched such movies as the 1988 "The Accused," which starred Jodie Foster and Demi Moore, or "Strip Tease," starring Demi Moore? How many date-rapes have occurred after couples have watched sexually-explicit and violent movies, when the hormonal man begins to feel his sexual prowess and asserts it an animalistic fashion? While a great majority of American people, 35-years-and-older, don't subscribe to, and participate in, the prevailing immorality that exists throughout the United States, they regularly tolerate and endorse it by collectively saying nothing against it. This is because there are so many diverse ethnic, racial, and religious factions within the nation that work against each other. A noted sociologist, who will remain anonymous, told me, on one occasion, that if any person puts an ad in the "New York Times" describing the creation of a new church that worships flying saucers, and requests disciples, fifty-or-more interested people from the New York City area will, in all probability, respond within a one-week time period. This prediction, the sociologist said, is based on the existence of a continually large number of aberrantly impressionable people concentrated in large urban areas.

Unlike the German people, who knew pretty much what was actually happening to the Jews, but somehow pretended that the Nazis wouldn't do such heinous things, a great number of Americans have actually capitulated to the gradually continual rise in immoral evil in the U.S., presently considering it as an irreversible component of American culture that is here to stay. That is to say that 80-to-90-percent of the American voting age population are being controlled and manipulated by, at-the-most, 10-percent of that very large number of local, state, and national voters, the base mentors of evil. Whether Republican, Democrat, Tea-Party Member, Independent, Mormon, Baptist, Catholic, Unitarian, Seventh Day Adventist, or any other civic or religious affiliation, the majority of decent morally-minded people in the United States must come together to collectively oppose the immoral evils that have pervaded and changed the mores of the American nation. Unless this happens, our children, and our children's children, will inherit a desolate land devoid of morality and the essence of goodness.

The Oil Eaters in the Gulf

By now you probably know about the oil spill (if not then shame on you). If you know about the giant oil spill then you probably already know about the mysterious bacteria that scientists estimate has cut the work load nearly in half. But who is this masked savior (OK there technically not masked) who is helping save our planet? Well there are actually 7 types of bacteria that are helping in the gulf.

The first of them is something called Alcanivorax Borkumensis (sometimes referred to as A. borkumensis). It is a rod-shaped bacteria that is not just found cleaning up oil in the gulf but also everywhere from Spain to Canada. They exist in all time low numbers except in the explosion after an oil spill. They specialize in breaking down the alkalines but their waste also helps other bacteria eat oil as well. Scientists are trying to genetically edit it to make it an even more powerful oil eater but sadly thus far they have not succeeded in creating super bacteria.

Considered by some to be the most dangerous component in an oil spill is something called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. These are volatile molecules and are often highly toxic. But luckily nature has a way to deal with this nasty molecules. The way nature deals with it is by using various strains of a bacterial genus called Cyclostasticus. These strains that are native to the gulf can dilute these toxic components by tapping their energy (so there like vampires). Some strains can eat even more dangerous aromatic hydrocarbons like toulene. They even have flagella that makes them move faster. Like the A. borkumensis scientists are busy trying to edit its DNA to make it even more efficient.

We have found the next oil eating bacteria all over the planet. From the cold black poles of arctic and Antarctic. To the warm seas in the gulf and everywhere in between. It is knownn as teh Colwellia genus. More than just survive in a large variety of environments it has the ability to thrive in many of them. Because of this it thought of as one of the more adaptable oil eaters. It is mostly to valuable because most oil eaters have trouble eating oil in cold water. Because of this scientists are trying to take apart these bacteria and see what makes them so special.

Then there is also an order of microbes called Oceanospirillales. We have already looked at one of the strains from the Oceanospirillales the A. borkumensis. But though A. borkumensis which is known as the most powerful the other strains should be noted in their ability to eliminate petroleum.

Here is where we will talk about another alkali eater. Known as the Oleispira. The Oleispira are best known for turning oil into more Oleispira (of course they also use carbon dioxide and water). Sadly Oleispira have been known to create dead zones. They consume large amounts of oxygen as they eat the oil.

Strains from the neptunomonas genus can be found in nearly every oil deposit. They are also known spread out through the oceans. Some of them help in not only eating oil but also decomposing whales and various other animals that have a lot of fatty acid.

Similar to the A. borkumensis the Thalassolituus Oleivorans are known for their ability to consume alkaline materials. But the biggest problem with these bacteria is they do the exact opposite with the A. borkumensis where the A. borkumensis helps other oil eaters Thalassolituus Oleivorans makes other oil eaters in the area less effective.

Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery: LiFePo4

A lithium iron battery is a lithium ion battery which uses iron phosphate (LiFePO4) as cathode material. But first, we must understand what a lithium battery is to get a better idea of the advantages of a LiFePo4 battery.

Lithium-ion batteries (or simply lithium batteries) are batteries which use lithium based material as a cathode and a variety of other materials (most commonly graphite) as anode. These batteries are commonly found in portable devices, such as cellphones, digital cameras, and others due to its light weight, small form factor and long battery life.

Lithium batteries have the advantage of using lithium, which is the element that is most easily oxidized. It means that it can easily give up an electron, which is then used by the circuit to power itself. The easier electrons are taken from a battery, the more efficient it becomes, hence accounting for its longevity. In addition, lithium is the lightest known metal, therefore it allows for portability and the material can be shaped easily.

Lithium by itself cannot be used as cathode, since it is so reactive that it would immediately form a salt with non-metals in the environment. This is most aptly demonstrated by the fact that lithium cannot be found in native form or in elemental form in nature. More commonly, it is found in the form of lithium chloride and other halide salts. In addition, native lithium spontaneously ignites and even reacts violently with water, necessitating its storage under oil.

This means that lithium compounds must be used in order to have lithium as cathode. These compounds must produce ions upon decomposition and must have an easily reversible reaction for it to be used as a rechargeable battery.

One good example of a lithium compound used is lithium iron phosphate (LI). LI batteries were developed at the University of Texas in 1996 as a cheap way of creating lithium batteries. It is cheap since lithium's "partner", iron is relatively more abundant compared to other metals being used to make lithium compounds for batteries. It has the advantage of having a slower discharge rate among lithium batteries, which means increased shelf-life.

As can be observed, the reaction produces lithium ions, and iron (III) phosphate (FePO4). Iron (III) phosphate or Ferric Phosphate is non-toxic unlike the other form which is iron (II) phosphate (Fe3(PO4)2). In fact, ferric phosphate is used as an iron supplement for humans, demonstrating it is safe for human consumption. This is the main reason why lithium iron phosphate is preferred over other lithium-based batteries. Other lithium-ion batteries, such as the more common lithium-cobalt batteries, produce more toxic cobalt oxide compounds.

The Truth About Behaviour, Emotions and Emotional Intelligence

After over 10 years in studying human behaviour from the psychological and the sociological perspectives in detail I am left with only one conclusion and that is that human behaviour is not governed by the cognitive functioning domain, but human behavior is governed by the inner soul of man, which technically speaking means the Inner Interactive System of man. The main reason that we are not governed by our thinking is because each of us have the ability to choose, whatever we want unless we take away the ability to rationalize through different chemicals or drugs.

Proof of this lies in the scientific facts that we all have unique finger prints, DNA, looks, hair, voices and so many other unique features that makes evolution of a unique person impossible, especially due to the number of different molecules and atoms that have to come together; all at the same time in order to become functional. We cannot have man evolving piece by piece over millions of years. Man cannot live for more than 50 days without food and less than 6 days without water. So the whole inner system of man to come together and function holistically with some big bang theory and evolving over millions of years is totally impossible.

Lets now get back to emotions and emotional functioning. The fact that man is uniquely different makes him a very illusive creature to pin down and understand his behavior. It is fairly simple to understand the holistic make up of man scientifically and the medical sciences have proved to be fairly proficient in these areas. The illusive part of man is the way he thinks and behaves; this is most challenging to the sciences and thereby makes it totally impossible to create a social norm or a normal individual.

Behavior and the expression thereof is totally different in every single individual. To be able to rationalize human behavior, we need to look at the holistic person; as every individuals finger print, DNA, looks etc are all different in every scenario. Behavior is therefore the illusive part of the psychological discipline as it is the psychologist who claim to be the experts in this field.

I have found that many of them become both insulting and aggressive; when I pointed out the fact and proved to them that they are lacking the understanding of the word unique. If something is unique it is impossible to ever be normal. The whole psychological discipline is based on Social norms. Behavior can never be diagnosed as normal, however people could have numerous similarities and I think the impossibility of being normal is an embarrassment to the psychological fraternities doctrine, as science has proven the exact opposite.

Although Psychology has marketed themselves under the medical sciences, their degree is not a science degree it is an arts degree. Behavior can never be a science as there are no starting points or ending point for it to be classified as a science; as everyone's behavior in the same environment or different environments are completely different to each other.

How a person behaves is not necessarily what he feels and what he feels can only be expressed through an emotion or emotional functioning if you please. So emotions are secondary to the cause of the emotion. So how does one come to a rational discipline called Emotional Intelligence? The only rationality that would make any sense, is if one uses a social norm as a standard from which the emotional intelligence can be established from?

However, what you feel is often not necessarily expressed at all, but only expressed to the extent that a person wants to portray themselves through an emotional expression or reaction, meaning that the expression of the inner feeling through emotions cannot be relied upon when trying to understand peoples behavior. This is why we have introverts and extroverts. These people are labeled due to their intensity of expression, and not on their true inner picture or feelings. This creates false perceptions.

The big question then would be: Do we understand what we mean when we talk about "The Mind"; which in reality is made up of the Cognitive, Physical, Emotional and the Conative (Will Power) functioning holistically all in harmony with each other, but with different functioning purposes all under the control of self, mostly expressed as "me" or "I"? The truth is we have so many different theories about human functioning; that the most predominant whom marketed their theories very effectively was Psychiatry and Psychology. The point is that these are Psychological theories and not a science and can never be a science although marketed under the pretence that it is a science.

The original intentions of psychologist was to study mans holistic behaviour, but sadly the industry has lost the initial understanding and have focussed more on the cognitive functioning of man. Now although psychiatry has been the best at marketing the theory, they definitely have lost the plot by focusing on the thinking (cognitive functioning) of man. You will hear that they claim that the mental aspect of man (Cognitive) is predominant and whereby they have reversed the process intentionally. I know there is a hidden agenda behind their theory.

Their discipline was changed in 1961 and thereafter they concentrate on the mental aspect and the name mental was adopted and marketed to mean that the cognitive functioning was the controlling factor in human behavior. Well it is very easy to prove that is a myth and totally untrue. It does not matter what I am thinking I still have a power called Free Choice which is based on what my belief system are and those beliefs, likes and dislikes are called personal standards. So if I believe that I should have integrity and honesty I would choose to do be honest by behaving and doing the right thing.

Depending on the intensity of importance of a belief or construct, this would determine what we would choose to do, as there are millions of different thought processes that go on in our Brain or Cognitive function every day, but ultimately the choice rests on our personal values and not the cognitive functioning. Some of these "experts" have focussed their attention on emotions and called their discipline "Emotional Intelligence" meaning that they perceive that emotions can be used to quantify or understand behavior.

Now let us analyze the word "Mind" and what does it mean: This is one true definitions and it is pretty well-defined and fairly descriptive: safe to say it has been misconstrued and been misinterpreted intentionally in order to market false doctrine;... anyway here is the true definition: "Mind" - "The human consciousness that originates in the brain and is manifested especially in thought, perception, emotion, will, memory, and imagination" - http://www.thefreedictionary.com/mind.

The definition includes all parts of the holistic functioning which are: Cognitive Functioning, Emotional functioning, Conative functioning (Will Power) and Physical functioning (Behavior). Please notice that consciousness originates in the brain because it is the organ that gives us the ability to rationalize and reason information effectively. However, when one talks about the mind it should mean the holistic functioning or behavior of man.

There is a lot of confusion here, because the decision-making process is done within the Soul called (Me, I, My, Self,) The brain rationalizes information and allows us to reasons effectively, but the fact remains that "I" still have the ability to act upon that information through the choices I make. So if "I" use "My" ability and choose to do something then it is plain logic that my behavior is governed by "Me" and not the brain. So if "I" say that "I" have made up my mind then one must understand that "I" have chosen a certain option which my brain may or may not agree with.

Therefore, the theory that I am governed by my thoughts is not true, I am governed by my belief system between what is right or wrong, good or bad, likes and dislikes. These beliefs are called Personal Values, and these personal values sets the standard whereby "I" would make different choices or decisions. So the brain and the soul interact with each other. If I believe something to be right I would choose what I believe to be right or wrong resulting in my "Behavior" and that behavior is expressed through my emotions. I therefore express my inner feelings or reactions through emotions.

Man has a unique tool called "Conative functioning" meaning the power to over rule the emotional, cognitive and physical functioning and this behavior is commonly known as "Will Power" often described as perseverance ability. Therefore the mind is not only been falsely perceived as solely "cognitive" functioning, instead of the "holistic functioning" of a person which needs to be clearly differentiated from the present perceptions or understanding that has been portrayed through the psychological theory as Cognitive or mental behavior.

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