New Blog on Habermas and Rawls

My blog will bring news on the two philosophers - Jürgen Habermas (1929-) and John Rawls (1921-2002). The blog will mainly have comments on new books and articles and information about conferences and other events. It will be written in both English and German.

The blog will be a supplement to the Habermas website www.habermasforum.dk, which I am co-editing. For an extensive bibliography on Habermas see this website.

Charlie Chaplin

Charles Spencer Chaplin was born on April 16 at 1889 in Walworth, London. His childhood similar with Charles Dickens novel, because Chaplin live under destitution with his brother, Sydney. His parents are hall musicians. They divorce when Chaplin was vey young. His mother attacked mental disruption illness and her turn into psyche hospital. Although his father is a famous musician, Chaplin’s idol is his mother. When he was young, Chaplin often watches his mother performance. These experiences make him decide his live become an artists like her mother. To reach his goal, Chaplin join with Eight Lancashire Lads group. Then, Chaplin gets his performance at Sherlock Holmes and Casey’s Court Circus.

Meanwhile, his brother, Sydney has joined with famous Fred Karno Company and soon, become main actor and director. He success invite Chaplin to joined and together, Chaplin become a star in that group. For that brothers, Fred Karno Company is a comedian high school. This period have a big impact to Charlie Chaplin to face the future. At 1910, together with Fred Karno Company, Chaplin organize a circumference performance around USA and that it again at 1912.

His second performance in Fred Karno Company, Chaplin founded by seeker talent, Mack Sennett. He is a Keystone Film Company owner. With this company, Charlie Chaplin introduced to movies world. His first film is a Makin A living at 1914, director by Henry Lehrman. Together with his film director, Mabel Normand, Chaplin makes many performances in Keystone Production. At Twenty Minutes of Love movie, he directs his own film. At that moment, he always directs his own next film.

His popularity make him able move to many film company with better contract. At 1915, after creates 35 films, he move to Essanay. Here, he solidifies his career together with long-lasting major artist at his film, such as Edna Purviance. At that moment, he create many protrude film, include The Champion, The Tramp and The Bank.

At 1916, he moves again to Lone Star Mutual and get better contract and higher payment. Here, he create short comedy film and then known as it peculiarity, The Rink, Easy Street, The Cure and The Immigrant, and then continue with First National and create a long film which become his masterpiece, The Kid. He create some short famous comedy film is his next production, included Sunnyside and The Idle Class.

Together with his best friend, like Douglas Fairbanks, Mary Pickford, and D.W Griffith, Chaplin created United Artist at 1919. His first film to this company at 1923 is Woman of Paris performed by Edna Purviance. Maybe this film not too famous, but after this film, The Gold Rush, The Circus, City Light and Modern Times was born and known as Charlie Chaplin Classics. At 1940, Chaplin make his first sound film, The Great Director, and continue with Monsieur Verdoux and Limelight, a his childhood memory in music hall film. Limelight (1952) is a last film in America. McCarthy politic maneuver success extrudes him out of America and not back again until 1972 for obtain Academy Award (Oscar) for his serve to film world.

During that, he welcomed well in England. He live in Switzerland together with his wife, Oona O’Neil and his children. He create 2 more film, A king In New York (1957 together with Dawn Addams) and A Countess From Hong Kong (1967 with Sophia Loren and Marlon Brando). He spend his live with create a music to his film and enjoy live with his family before died at 4 A.M in Christmas 1977.

William Hewlett

If we hear ‘Hewlett’ maybe our imagination is imagine of famous print brand named Hewlett-Packard (HP). It’s true that one of Hewlett Packard founder is William R. Hewlett. Hewlett was born on May, 20 at 1912 in¬¬ Ann Arbor, Mich. At 1939, Hewlett establish Hewlett-Packard (HP) Company together with David Packard who died at 1996.
This company was build only with $538 investment. Of course Hewlett-Packard name taken from their name. In Hewlett-Packard Company, Hewlett hold important commission, but after 1978, Hewlett quit from his commission as Chief Executive Officer.
During his student, Hewlett take some academic title from many colleges. In 1934, Hewlett gain his Bachelor Arts academic title from Stanford University. His master academic in Electrical Engineering, gained from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) at 1936 and next 3 year, Hewlett gain engineering academic from Stanford University. Hewlett is a receiver of 13 Honorary Degrees in many Universities.
When studied at Stanford University, he meet with David Packard and finally become Hewlett best friend. Hewlett career is interesting. When second word war happen, Hewlett work as US soldier. During his assignment as US soldier, Hewlett included as inspection Japan industries team when second word war over. At 1947, after he back from his assessment, Hewlett go to Palo Ato.
He begin work at his establish company with David Packard and officiate as vice president in Hewlett-Packard company. At 1957, Hewlett officiate as Executive vice president. Seven years later, Hewlett officiate as President of HP. At 1969, he officiate as Chief Executive Officer. Hewlett hold his position during 9 year and at 1978 he quit from his position.
Hewlett is a subjugate person of science and technology. Because of that, at 1985, US president, Ronald Reagan gives him a National Medal of Science appreciation for his service to science and technology. That award is a higher appreciation in America. Hewlett is a education, medical and social big concern person. He work at many institute, like Stanford Medical Center, Kaiser Foundation Hospital, The Carnegie Institution of Washington and Drug Abuse Council in Washington.
William R. Hewlett died at 12 January 2001 when he 87 years, but, Hewlett will always become people memorizes cause his company with David Packard is a one of the best word IT company. Hewlett-Packard creates many gadget like PDA (Personal Digital Assistant), printer, computer, and etcetera. Now, many of Hewlett-Package item, use by all person in the word.

Thomas Alfa Edison

Thomas Alva Edison was born in Milan, Ohio on February 11, 1847. His parents were Samuel and Nancy Edison. Thomas's three older brothers and sisters died before he was born from very harsh winters. He had brother named Pitt and two sisters named Marion and Harriet Ann. His parents named him Thomas because of his great uncle.

When he was young, everyone called him Al. Al asked a lot of questions and was VERY curious. When young Thomas was six, he started a fire in his father's barn and burned it to the ground. He was charged with arson. To show that he was truly sorry, Samuel Edison spanked his son in front of the whole town the next day. Thomas was very embarrassed.

Sam was afraid that his son had no feelings because when Thomas was at the creek, his friend drowned and he showed no emotion. Al's teachers thought that he could not learn and was stupid, and when his teachers told Nancy Edison, she became very mad and decided to teach Thomas herself. Thomas's mother bought him the Dictionary of Science, and he read it all. After that, all of his allowance was spent buying chemicals at the drug store.

Before Thomas Alva Edison was ten, he had already read History of England, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, History of the World, and The Age of Reason. When he was eleven, he made his own telegraph set from a picture in a book. Then and there, he decided he wanted to become a telegrapher. At age twelve, he started selling candy on trains to people riding.

When he was 13, he was running behind a train, trying to catch it, when a man snatched his ear and pulled him up onto the train by his ears. Right then, he started to slowly become deaf. Another time, at 15, Thomas saw a boy on a train track, and a train was heading right for him. Al swept by, grabbing the boy, and put him on the grass. The boy's father was so happy, he taught Thomas telegraphy in reward.

When Thomas Edison was 21, he experimented with everything. He was fired from his job at the Boston Telegraph Service because he became bored and started playing jokes on his boss. On May 1, 1869, Thomas received a patent for a vote recording machine, but once it was invented, no one wanted it.
Later, Thomas invented a device that would control errors in stock tickers, and engineers liked it. He wanted at the most, $5,000 for it, but he kept quiet and the engineers offered him $40,000. When Thomas brought his check to the bank, the teller began to yell at him, because he could not hear. He took his check and got out of line. Al went back to the engineer's office and the engineer identified him to the teller, and Thomas had his money, which he spent all on shop equipment.

One day, Thomas Edison saw a lady standing out in the rain, and he fell in love with her. Her name was Mary Stilwell. He offered her a job in his lab, and she accepted. He taught her Morse code, and married her. After the wedding, Thomas went to see the new stock tickers. Mary spent her wedding day alone. The next day, Thomas took Mary to Niagara Falls for their honeymoon and Mary took her sister because she was so upset about Thomas leaving on their wedding day. The telephone was invented a short time later by Alexander Graham Bell. Engineers asked Thomas if he could improve it, and he tried. He invented the first phonograph, and everyone loved it. Mary later had two baby girls: Madeline, and Dot. After his daughters were born, his hard work finally had paid off. He had invented something that would change the world and technology forever.

Thomas Alva Edison had invented the light bulb. He installed a lighting system in New York, and lit it up. Everyone thought that Thomas was a wizard, and gave him the name "Wizard of Menlo Park". After his invention of the light bulb, Mary had two baby boys: Junior and Will. Mary died of Typhoid fever on August 9, 1884. Thomas was sad, but a short time after, he married a young woman named Mina Miller. On their wedding day, he was 38, and she was 22. The next day, they took Thomas's first actual vacation. They went to Paris. Mina had a baby boy named Charles, and a year later, she had another boy, Theodore. After the birth of his sons, he had invented the motion picture. America was so astounded, they named him the American Wizard.

Thomas Alva Edison died a short time later on October 21, 1931 at age 84. He was buried under an oak tree in Glenmont. The United States were so sad, they turned off their power for one minute and prayed throughout the whole United States for a tribute to Thomas Alva Edison.

Louis Pasteur

Louis Pasteur , Master of France chemical and biology, is a very excellence person in medicine history. Pasteur donate many of important idea for science, but the most protrude at himself is a his argue about basil disease theory and preventive technique development by injection.

Pasteur was born in Dole city at 1822, east France. As a Paris student, he deepens his knowledge in science and medicine scope. When he study at France, His genius not really visible, even one of his professor, categorized Pasteur as intermediate person in chemical. After he gain a doctor academic, Pasteur proof that his professor utterance is a big mistake. His research about tartaric acid of glass, make his dignity up to famous chemistry when he 26 years. Then he distract his concern to yarn and proof that that process is same as type of another organism which can produce unwilling yarn water. Soon, this argues lead him to another idea, that organism can produce unpredictable thing and can carry good effect for human or animal.

Pasteur is not the first person who make a problem about basil disease theory. A same hypothesis has been develop earlier by Girolamo Fracastoro, Friedrich Henle and many more. But, Pasteur is the most protrude indeed basil disease theory. Pasteur proof his theory with many of experience and demonstration as a major factor and he success to persuasive cleaver public that this theory is true.
When basil caused disease, prevent bacteria to enter in human body, make the disease can far away from human. Because of that, Pasteur emphasizes the important antiseptic methods for a doctor and he have big influence to Joseph Lister who introduce antiseptic way into surgery scope.

Dangerous bacteria can enter in human body by food and drink. Pasteur develops pasteurization technique to annihilate micro organism in drink. This technique, can annihilate bacteria as infection agent in milk. All of bacteria perish and the milk safe to drink.

When his age approach 50 years old, Pasteur change his concern to cattle basil disease, a kind of serious infection which attack cattle and another animal unexpected human. Pasteur ability to show that kind of basil cause a disease. The most important work is his development technique when product weaker disease basil. With injection a basil to cattle body, the weaker disease basil can caused a light disease but cannot caused anything fatal and probably, the cattle gain an immune to faced normal disease. Pasteur ‘s demonstrate his successes immune cattle from basil in a public caused consternation. Soon, general method can used for prevent various resident disease.

Pasteur in his laboratories
The most famous personal Pasteur discovery is a in a injection technique development for human to prevent scared rabies disease. Like Pasteur, another scientist develop a vaccine to prevent another hard disease like typhus an poliomyelitis.

Pasteur, a workaholic man, create unimportant discovery but still useful for his famous. Pasteur found anaerobic phenomena too, for example one microorganism can live without air or oxygen. Pasteur's works about silk caterpillar, incur a high commercial value. The other discovery is vaccine to prevent cholera disease to chicken and poultry. Pasteur died near Paris 1895. Until now, his discovery still used as basic immune.

Galileo Galilei (1)

Galileo Galilei was born in Pisa, Italy on February 15, 1564. He was the first of 7 children. Although his father was a musician and wool trader, he wanted his clearly talented son to study medicine as there was more money in medicine. So, at age eleven, Galileo was sent off to study in a Jesuit monastery.

After four years, Galileo had decided on his life's work: he announced to his father that he wanted to be a monk. This was not exactly what father had in mind for his gifted son, so Galileo was hastily withdrawn from the monastery. In 1581, at the age of 17, he entered the University of Pisa to study medicine, as his father wished.

Shortly thereafter, at age 20, Galileo noticed a lamp swinging overhead while he was in a cathedral. Curious to find out how long it took the lamp to swing back and forth, he used his pulse to time large and small swings. Galileo discovered something that no one else had ever realized: the period of each swing was exactly the same. The law of the pendulum, which would eventually be used to regulate clocks, made Galileo instantly famous.

Unfortunately, except for mathematics, Galileo was bored by most of his courses and outspoken to his professors. His frequent absences from class eventually led the university to inform Galileo's family that their son was in danger of flunking out. A compromise was worked out, where Galileo would be tutored full-time in mathematics by the mathematician of the Tuscan court. Galileo's father was hardly overjoyed about this turn of events, since a mathematician's earning power was roughly around that of a musician, but it seemed that this might yet allow Galileo to successfully complete his college education. In the end, Galileo left the University of Pisa without a degree--a college dropout.

Faced with the need to somehow earn a living, Galileo started tutoring students in mathematics. He did some experimenting with floating objects, developing a balance that could tell him that a piece of, say, gold was 19.3 times heavier than the same volume of water. He also started campaigning for his life's ambition: a position on the mathematics faculty at a major university. Although Galileo was clearly brilliant, he had offended many people in the field, who would choose other candidates for vacancies. Ironically, it was a lecture on literature that would turn Galileo's fortunes. The Academy of Florence had been arguing over a 100-year-old controversy: What were the location, shape, and dimensions of Dante's Inferno?

To modern ears, this type of question sounds like asking for the location of Sherlock Holmes's 221B Baker Street, or the size of Dr. Frankenstein's castle. But the question was absolutely serious, and Galileo, asked to answer the question from the point of view of a man of science, treated it with dignity. Extrapolating from Dante's line that "[the giant Nimrod's] face was about as long/And just as wide as St. Peter's cone in Rome," Galileo deduced that Lucifer himself was 2,000 armlengths long. The audience was impressed, and Galileo was remembered with favor.

Within the year, Galileo had received a three-year appointment to the University of Pisa, the same university that never granted him a degree!

Isaac Newton (1)

In 1642, the year Galileo died, England on Christmas Day. His father had died three months earlier, and baby Isaac, very premature, was also not expected to survive. It was said he could be fitted into a quart pot. When Isaac was three, his mother married a wealthy elderly clergyman from the next village, and went to live there, leaving Isaac behind with his grandmother. The clergyman died, and Isaac’s mother came back, after eight years, bringing with her three small children. Two years later, Newton went away to the Grammar School in Grantham, where he lodged with the local apothecary, and was fascinated by the chemicals. The plan was that at age seventeen he would come home and look after the farm. He turned out to be a total failure as a farmer.

His mother’s brother, a clergyman who had been an undergraduate at Cambridge, persuaded his mother that it would be better for Isaac to go to university, so in 1661 he went up to Trinity College, Cambridge. Isaac paid his way through college for the first three years by waiting tables and cleaning rooms for the fellows (faculty) and the wealthier students. In 1664, he was elected a scholar, guaranteeing four years of financial support. Unfortunately, at that time the plague was spreading across Europe, and reached Cambridge in the summer of 1665. The university closed, and Newton returned home, where he spent two years concentrating on problems in mathematics and physics. He wrote later that during this time he first understood the theory of gravitation, which we shall discuss below, and the theory of optics (he was the first to realize that white light is made up of the colors of the rainbow), and much mathematics, both integral and differential calculus and infinite series. However, he was always reluctant to publish anything, at least until it appeared someone else might get credit for what he had found earlier.

On returning to Cambridge in 1667, he began to work on alchemy, but then in 1668 Nicolas Mercator published a book containing some methods for dealing with infinite series. Newton immediately wrote a treatise, De Analysi, expounding his own wider ranging results. His friend and mentor Isaac Barrow communicated these discoveries to a London mathematician, but only after some weeks would Newton allow his name to be given. This brought his work to the attention of the mathematics community for the first time. Shortly afterwards, Barrow resigned his Lucasian Professorship (which had been established only in 1663, with Barrow the first incumbent) at Cambridge so that Newton could have the Chair.

Newton’s first major public scientific achievement was the invention, design and construction of a reflecting telescope. He ground the mirror, built the tube, and even made his own tools for the job. This was a real advance in telescope technology, and ensured his election to membership in the Royal Society. The mirror gave a sharper image than was possible with a large lens because a lens focusses different colors at slightly different distances, an effect called chromatic aberration. This problem is minimized nowadays by using compound lenses, two lenses of different kinds of glass stuck together, that err in opposite directions, and thus tend to cancel each other’s shortcomings, but mirrors are still used in large telescopes.

Later in the 1670’s, Newton became very interested in theology. He studied Hebrew scholarship and ancient and modern theologians at great length, and became convinced that Christianity had departed from the original teachings of Christ. He felt unable to accept the current beliefs of the Church of England, which was unfortunate because he was required as a Fellow of Trinity College to take holy orders. Happily, the Church of England was more flexible than Galileo had found the Catholic Church in these matters, and King Charles II issued a royal decree excusing Newton from the necessity of taking holy orders! Actually, to prevent this being a wide precedent, the decree specified that, in perpetuity, the Lucasian professor need not take holy orders. (The current Lucasian professor is Stephen Hawking.)

James Watt (1)

James watt is from Scotland he invent steam engine, the key to industrial revolution.
Actually, watt is not the first person that made steam engine, same scheme also made by hero from iskandarya in early cristian's years. In 1682 thomase savery made his paten to his water pump machine and in 1712 english man thomas newcomen also made his same paten that more perfect but still newcomen machine is less eficient and low quality because only can use to waterpump for coal mine.
Watt became intersting in steam engine in 1764 when he fixed newcomen machine, even he only have one year study in tools but he had big talent to create something big, he made more perfect to newcomen machine, because the perfection of watt is more important so deserve to became the first person who made practically steam engine.

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