Drivers of a Nation's Economy: GDP Demystified

Often you must have come across the term GDP growth as a barometer for economic growth of a nation. In layman terms, the higher this rate, the better the economy is believed to be performing and vice-versa. But, what is GDP? Gross Domestic Product, or GDP, is defined as all final goods and services produced in an economy in a year, measured at market prices.

GDP can be summed up in the form of a formula as:

GDP= Total Consumptions + Total Investments + Government Expenditure + Net Exports,

the components of which, can be described as follows:

  • Consumption:It is the total expenditure by all the consumers on the purchase of goods and services. Demand and consumption are one of the most powerful drivers of an economy, as they provide the business incentive to produce more, thereby fuelling growth through increased business activities and employment generation.
  • Investment: It is the sum total of all investments in capital goods and services, including housing, by the consumers and business enterprises. In growing economies, it forms an important part of GDP due to high investments in infrastructure and industrialization. This includes homebuilding.
  • Government Spending: Unlike what the name suggests, it includes both expenditure and investments by the Government.
  • Net Exports: This component is the net of exports and import in the country for the year under study. High net exports is a healthy sign, as it helps in driving business activity on the back of demand, over and above the domestic one, earning valuable foreign exchange and enhancing money supply.


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